Ecological Risk Assessment of Construct Artificial Islands by Fault Tree Analysis Method in the Persian Gulf
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages: 139-146
Received: Mar. 7, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 17, 2015;
Published: Apr. 30, 2015
Views 4616 Downloads 152
Amin Ahmadi Givi, Department of Environmental Education, Management & Planning, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
Sepideh Karimi, Department of Environmental Education, Management & Planning, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
Mahdis Sadat, Department of Environmental Education, Management & Planning, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
Mahmood Zoghi, Department of Environmental Education, Management & Planning, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
Saeed Karimi, Department of Environmental Planning and Management, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
Negar foroughi, Department of Environmental Education, Management & Planning, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
Bahram malekmohamadi, Department of Environmental Planning and Management, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
Development is inevitable in various sectors.One example of these developments is the construction of artificial islands which is man-made and is made for variety of purposes including tourism, economy, and airports, industrial, political and military establishment. Construction of artificial islands is a serious treatment for marine ecosystems. In this way according to the geopolitical situation and the crucial role of Persian Gulf in the region, this golf is not safe against the effects of artificial islands construction and as a valuable ecosystem with high biodiversity has been threatened. Due to the growing trend of construction artificial islands in the Persian Gulf and importance of environmental risk assessment of these structures to analyze the relationships between the various stages of construction and environmental Persian Gulf, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) was used in order to risk assessment of these structures. As a result it will follow path errors from an event or adverse condition (Top event) to achieving error or causal factors or initiator. The most important risks in Construction artificial island projects include: disorder in food chains, water pollution, hydrodynamic regime changing and damage to plant and animal species. Therefore for achieving sustainable development in the Persian Gulf, deciding about the construction of artificial islands must be more carefully and should be tried to reduce occurrence probability and severity of impacts.
Amin Ahmadi Givi,
Ecological Risk Assessment of Construct Artificial Islands by Fault Tree Analysis Method in the Persian Gulf, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 139-146.
Aghai. B, Artificial Islands in the Persian Gulf and the International Law of the Sea, Persian Journal, 1, 2006, 2-5.
Christine. A, Axel. N, Dredging management practices for the environment: A structured selection approach, Terra ET Aqua, 114, 2009, 3-8.
Gerwick. C, Ben Construction of Offshore Structures, John Wiley and sons, USA, 1987.
Hashemi. H, Construction ofartificial islands, trade with environment, www.aftab.ir, Revised December 2009, Accessed October 18, 2014.
Hayes. K.R, Identifying hazards in complex ecological systems. Part 1 fault-tree analysis for biological invasions, Biological Invasions, 4, 3, (2002), 235-249.
Heller. S, Managing industrial Risk-having a Tasted and Proven system to prevent and assess Risk, Journal of Hazardous Materail, 130, (2006), 58-103.
Horii. R, Historical background and recent trends in dredging and reclamation technologies in Japan, Marine Georesources&Geotechnology, 14, (1996), 19-36.
KALD,Kansai Airport Land Development Company,www.kald.co.jp, Revised December 2009, Accessed December 18, 2013.
Kardovani.P,2009, StrategicDevelopments inplacein the Persian Gulfregion, Proceedings of the conference onstrategicdevelopments inthePersian GulfPlace, Tehran, Geographic and Cartographic Institute Publications Gitashenasi, special Issue1 (2009)
Laribaghal. M, Jafarzadehaghighifard. N, RafieUsing. M, FMEAinenvironmentalrisk assessment: the case ofmining,dredgingsome docksBandar imam Khomeini, WetlandResearch, 9, (2011), 14-3. (In Persion)
Muhlbauer. W, Pipeline Risk Management Manual. Gulf Professional Publishing, 3, (1999), 65‐75.
Mirheydar. D, the Foundations of Political Geography, Tehran, Iran, 2011.
Moor. D.W, Bridge T.S, Wes. C.R & et al, Environmental Risk Assessment and Dredged Material Management: Issues and Application, Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program, http://el.erdc.usace.army.mail/elpus/pdf/trdoer2.pdf, 1998.
Omidi. A, International Law and the Construction of Artificial Islands, Information of Political -economic, 237-238, (2007), P. 73-77. (In Persian)
Pishgahifard. Z, Kamran. H, Afzali. R, Hoseiniaminy. H, Eltiyamniya. R, Legal andenvironmental consequences ofthe construction ofartificial islandsin thePersian Gulf, Institute ofHuman Geography, 79, (2011), 140-117. (In Persian)
Pishgahifard. Z, An introduction to political geography of seas with emphasis on Iran's seas, University of Tehran Press, 2005. (In Persian)
Polito. C.P, The effects of non-plastic and plastic fines on the liquefaction of sandy soils, PHD Dissertation, Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, (1999).
Poorzaferani. M, An overview of methods for the design and construction of artificial islands, and measures to reduce liquefaction potential and meeting, 10th International Conference on Coasts Ports and Marine Structures,October, in Tehran, Iran, 2013. (In Persian)
Puzrin. A. M, Alonso. E. E., Pinyol. N. M, Unexpected Excessive Settlements: Kansai International Airport, Geomechanics of Failures, Springer, Germany, 2010, 23-43.
Rabionet. I, Indicators for Evaluating the Impact of Artificial Islands on the Barcelona Coast, Coastal Management, 36(3), (2008), 254-273.
Stamatelatos. M, Caraballo. J, Probabilitic risk assessment procedures guide for NASA managers and practitioners,office of safety and mission assurance NASA headquarters, www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codeq/doctree/praguide.pdf, Revised Augest 2002, Accessed June 3, 2012.
Tsaltas. G, Bourtzis. T, Rodotheatos. G, Artificial Island and Structure as a Means of Safeguarding State Sovereignty Against Sea Level Rise, A law of Sea Perspective, , document in preparation of the 6th ABLOS Conference,(2010), Monaco.
Yasuda. S, Ishihara. K, Harada. K, Shinkawa. N, Effect of soil improvement on ground subsidence Due to liquefaction, Soils and Foundations, special Issue1, (1995), 99-107.