Selective Impacts of the 2012 Water Floods on the Vegetation and Wildlife of Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages: 73-85
Received: Jan. 13, 2014;
Published: Mar. 20, 2014
Views 3069 Downloads 161
Elijah Ige Ohimain, Biodiversity Conservation and Research Group, Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Biodiversity Conservation and Research Group, Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Dimie Otobotekere, Biodiversity Conservation and Research Group, Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
The study was designed to evaluate the impacts of the 2012 water floods on the wildlife and vegetation of Wilberforce Island. Ten transects of 1 km each were established cutting across the three levels of impacted vegetation namely, dead, dying and intact plants. The relative topography of the plots was assessed based on the measurement of receding water marks on plants. The effects of the floods on wildlife were assessed through interviews and field work. The study found that 23 mammals, 21 avian fauna and 37 plants were impacted. The plant species, which exhibited the greatest impacts, was Musanga cecropoides. The water level marks on Musanga cecropoides coincided with the physiological stress on the plant. The receding water level mark on Musanga cecropoides ranged from 59.33 to 164.67cm for the dead plants, 12.00 to 32.67cm for the dying plants, but the water was at ground level for intact vegetation. The study provided an assessment of the 2012 floods impacts on biodiversity, providing scientific evidence for planning responses to mitigate future flooding events and providing the basis for assessment of cumulative impacts of multiple flooding events on the Island since flooding was also predicted to occur in 2013.
Elijah Ige Ohimain,
Sylvester Chibueze Izah,
Selective Impacts of the 2012 Water Floods on the Vegetation and Wildlife of Wilberforce Island, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2014, pp. 73-85.
Hickey J T,Salas J D, 1995. Environmental effects of extreme floods. U.S.- Italy Research Workshop on the Hydrometeorology, Impacts, and Management of Extreme Floods Perugia (Italy), November 1995.
Gardiner J 1995. Developing flood defence as a sustainable hazard alleviation measure. In: J. Gardiner, O. Starosolszky, and V. Yevjevich (eds.), Defence from floods and floodplain management, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston and London, pp. 13-40.
NachtnebelHP, 1995. Environmentally and socially sound utilization of floodplains; some Austrian experiences. In: J. Gardiner, O. Starosolszky, and V. Yevjevich (eds.), Defence from floods and floodplain management, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston and London, pp. 539-554.
Leentvaar J Stortelder PBM, 1995. The methods and mechanisms of establishing consensus on water management policy in the Netherlands.In: J. Gardiner, O. Starosolszky, and V. Yevjevich (eds.), Defence from floods and floodplain management, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston and London, pp. 555-564.
Obateru T,2012. 104 lives lost to flood in north central zone. Vanguard September 28, 2012. Pp 9.
Obahopo B, 2012. Kogi moves to stop epidemics. Vanguard September 28, 2012. Pp 9.
Ahon F, 2012. Flood victims find solace in Ughelli relief camp. Vanguard October 24, 2012. Pp 45.
Ahon F, 2012. Food: 53,000 displaces, 11 communities submerged in Delta. Vanguard October 8, 2012. Pp 11.
Ahon F, 2012. NGO rescues 12,300 trapped flood victims. Vanguard October 20, 2012. Pp 9.
Ebegbulem S, 2012. Rag of River Niger: Edo communities cry out against ravaging flood. Vanguard September 28, 2012. Pp 20.
Agbakwuru J, 2012. Rep weeps over displacement of 5,000 in C-River. Vanguard October 8, 2012. Pp 11.
Osamor F U, 2012. Orubebe not cause of the flooding. Vanguard October 29, 2012. Pp 46.
Edukugho E,2012. Devastating floods: Food scarcity loams. Vanguard October 20, 2012. Pp 10.
Dangida A, 2012. Flood: Food prices soar in Jigawa. Vanguard October 26, 2012. Pp 8.
Adingupu C, 2012. Upᴉ Upᴉᴉ goes price of staple food items. Vanguard October 20, 2012. Pp 13.
Lameed G A, 2010. Potential impact on biodiversity in Kwale's forest reserve by power plant establishments. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 9(9): 1878 – 1900.
Happold DC D, 1987. The Mammal of Nigeria. 1st Edition. Clarendon Press. Oxford. Pp. 8-17.
Myers N, Mittermeier R A, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca G AB, Kent J, 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772): 853 - 858
Hamadina MK, Otobotekere D, Anyanwu D I, 2007. Impact assessment and biodiversity considerations in Nigeria: a case study of Niger Delta University campus project on wildlife in Nun River forest reserve. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal. 18(2): 179 – 197.
Jackman A, Bell S, 1979. Quantitative measurement of food selection. Oecologia 14, As in the Conservation Handbook; Research Management and Policy, by William Sutherland.: 413-417.
Nyananyo BL, 2006. Plants from the Niger Delta. Published by Onyoma Research Publication.
Okezie A I, Agyakwa C W, 1998. A Handbook of West African Weeds. Printed at INTEC Printers, Ibadan.
Adiribe C C, Illoh H C, 2007. Plant Album. A Pictorial Collection of Plants in Nigeria. By S.O.S. Publications.
Dorst J,Dendelot P, 1993. Larger Mammals of Africa. 2nd Ed. Collins, London.
Jonathan K, 1997. The Kingdom Filed Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Limited, London.
Borrow N, Demcy R D, 2001. Birds of Western Africa. Helm Identification Guide. Christopher Helm London.
Steentoft M, 1986. Vegetation in West Africa. In: Lawson, G.W. (ed.). Plant Ecology in West Africa. Systems and Processes. John Wiley, Chichester.
Shroba R R, Schmidt P W, Crosby E J, Hansen W R, 1979. Geologic and geomorphic effects in the Big Thompson Canyon area, Larimer county: Part B in the Storm and flood of July 31-August 1, 1976, in the Big Thompson River and Cache La Poudre River Basins, Larimer and Weld counties, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey (G.S. Professional Paper 1115), Washington, D.C.
Ohimain E I, Akinnibosun H A, 2010. Hydrophytic vegetation indicators for wetland delineation in coastal swamp, southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Pure and Applied Science 3 (1): 73 - 81
Lauer J,2008. Flooding Impacts on Corn Growth and Yield. Agronomy advice, Field Crops 28.49-56. 2pp.
Wesseling J,1974. Crop growth and wet soils. Van Schilfgaarde, J. (ed.). Drainage for agriculture. p. 7-37. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
Ashraf, M,Rehman, H. 1999. Mineral nutrient status of corn in relation to nitrate and long-term waterlogging. Journal of Plant Nutrition 22:1253-1268.
IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 25 February 2013.