An Evaluation of Samarra City Drinking Water Treatment Plants
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 1, Issue 5, October 2013, Pages: 203-212
Published: Oct. 30, 2013
Views 3366 Downloads 227
Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani, Department of Construction Engineering, University of Technology, Building, Iraq
Eng. Ali Awaid, Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Follow on us
Global population increases specially in developing countries such Iraq requires more effort and investment in water and sanitation facilities to enhance the welfare of people in meeting the MDG objectives. The competition for water resources coupled with the generation of wastewater is creates additional pressure on the available supplies and increasing pollution level. To address such challenges it has become necessary to build new or enhance existing treatment systems. In different part of Iraq including in Samarra City effort is being made to enhance the water quality in regard to its physical, chemical, and biological characteristics as well as the minerals and organic substances which may produce adverse physiological effects. In order to evaluate different aspect of water quality this study focused on evaluating the drinking water quality and also the performance of the two treatment plants in Samarra City located on the left bank of Tigris River to the north of Baghdad City. The investigation covered the period of December, 2004 to May, 2005. The first is the main conventional water treatment plant with a capacity of 2400m3/hr. and the second is a compact unit with a capacity of 200m3/hr. The collected water data cover some of the important physical and chemical parameters of water quality; covering temperature, TDS, turbidity, pH and residual chlorine. While the bacteriological parameters covered total plate count (TPC) and E-coli for stages of treatment plants. The results show that turbidity of raw water is not high (3.84-425) NTU compared with Al-Karkh water project in Baghdad City (6-1400) NTU, because the intakes of WTPs are located in the downstream of Samarra barrage which serves as a pre-sedimentation tank. Low clarifiers turbidity removal efficiencies of (48.323 %) and (32.09 %) were obtained for treatment plant and compact unit respectively, while for filters removal efficiencies were (63.2 %) and (39.05 %) respectively. The monthly average turbidity of supplied water for conventional water treatment plant and compact unit were (4.3 and 18.2) NTU, the percent of violation to Iraqi Specifications were (29.4 % and 64.7%) respectively. Not always, increasing in raw water turbidity result in an increase in turbidity removal efficiency. pH values and TDS concentrations of supplied water are within Iraqi, EPA and WHO Specifications. Low amount and interrupted chlorination in WTP and CU, so, irregular chlorination results in frequent outbreak of waterborne diseases. It can be recommend to improve the water quality monitoring program through the application of; coagulant aids to overcome the high turbidity of raw water during the rainy season, the hexagonal tube settler in the sedimentation tank of the compact unit to get the designed SOR and anthracite with sand as a dual porous media to increase the filtration rate to overcome the shortage in hot seasons. Also periodic systematic maintenance for different units of treatment plants is required.
Treatment Plant, Turbidity, Samarra City, Raw Water, Filtered Water, Switzerland
To cite this article
Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani,
Eng. Ali Awaid,
An Evaluation of Samarra City Drinking Water Treatment Plants, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 1, No. 5,
2013, pp. 203-212.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), The History of Drinking Water Treatment, 2000
Borchardt, J. A., and G. Walton, Water Quality In Water Quality and Treatment, American Water Works Association, Ed. 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1971,
Cheremisinoff, N.P, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Technologies, Butterworth-Heinemann Publications, 2002
Robert A. Clark, Virendra Sethi, David L., and James A.Williams, , Water Supply, Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering, 2nd edition, Mc Grow Hill Handbooks, 2004
C.P. Kaushik, S.S Bharikatti, and Anubha Kaushik, Basic Civil and Environmental Engineering", New AGE International (P) Limited, Publishers, 2010
Ruth F.Weiner and Robin A. Mathews, Environmental Engineering, 4th edition, Butterworth Heinemann, 2003
Nelson L.Nemerow, Franklin J, Agardy Patrick Sullivan, and Joseph A, Salvato, Environmental Engineering, 6th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009
Janna, H.A., "Evaluation of Tigris River Water Quality at Baghdad and the Performance of the Existing Water Treatment Plants", M .Sc, Thesis, University of Technology, 2004
Tebbutt, T. H. Y, Principles of Water Quality Control, 5th edition, Butterworth. Pontius, 1998
Mullen, E.D. and Ritter, J.A, 1974, Potable water corrosion control, .J. AWWA, (1974) 66:473.
Municipal Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Guidelines (MDWQMG), 2004.