Assessment of Environmental Indicators on the Topolithosequence with a Particular Reference to Soil Developmemt in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 1, Issue 3, June 2013, Pages: 105-110
Received: May 30, 2013; Published: Jul. 20, 2013
Views 3124      Downloads 153
Zulkarnain Chairuddin, Dept of soil science, Faculty of agriculture, Hasanuddin university, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Sumbangan Baja, Dept of soil science, Faculty of agriculture, Hasanuddin university, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Kaimuddin , Dept of agronomy, Faculty of agriculture, Hasanuddin university, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Rahim Darma, Dept of agriculture socio-economic, Faculty of agriculture, Hasanuddin university, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia, *Center for Regional Development and Spatial Information (WITARIS), Hasanuddin University, Indonesia Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Article Tools
Follow on us
A study was carried out to assess environmental indicators and to investigate the role of soil mineralogy on the topolithosequence with a particular reference to soil development in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Soil profiles were selected based on the differences in altitude, slope gradient, and rock unit. The soil profiles can be respectively described as follows: P1 (140 meters above sea level, 20%, breksi and lava); P2 (60 meters above sea level, 15%, sedimentary rock); P3 (20 meters above sea level, 3%, alluvium sediment), and P4 (5 meters above sea level, 0%, alluvium sediment). In the identification of sand fraction mineral for each profile, minerals such as Garnet, Apatite, Olivine, Hornblende, Biotite, Feldspar, Muscovite, Quartz, Hematite, and Pyrite were found. The quartz mineral can be used as a topolithosequence indicators regarding soil development and its vulnerability against pedo-transfer functions. According to soil development, the profiles can be arranged as follow: P4 > P3 >P2 > P1. The X-ray diffractogram analysis of soil profiles indicates that the diffractogram peaks are 3.2; 3.4; 3.56; 9.9; 12.4; 14.5; 15.4; 16.8; and 17.7Ao which are identified as montmorillonite clay mineral, and the diffractogram peaks 7.2 and 10.1Ao are halloysite. Meanwhile, the diffractogram peaks 3.58, 3.59, and 7.15 Ao are identified as kaolinite. Each soil profile with its diffractogram peak signifies that all profiles have clay mineral montmorillonite, halloysite, and kaolinite, except for soil profile P1 only which has montmorillonite, and halloysite. Therefore, it could be concluded that P1 has experienced longer weathering than P2, P3, and P4, although it never leads to a soil development. The overall results of both sand fraction minerals and clay minerals signify that the soil development rate of each profile corresponds to altitude and slope. This eventually indicates that the weathering is transported in its lateral translocation nature, and reveals different types and levels of environmental indicators related to soil development.
Environmental Indicators, Pedo-Transfer, Soil Development, Topolithosequence, Weathering
To cite this article
Zulkarnain Chairuddin, Sumbangan Baja, Kaimuddin , Rahim Darma, Assessment of Environmental Indicators on the Topolithosequence with a Particular Reference to Soil Developmemt in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2013, pp. 105-110. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20130103.16
Bridges, E. M. and D. A. Davidson, "Principles and applications of soil geography," Longman Inc. New York. 1982.
M. J. Kirkby, Y. Le Bissonais, T.J. Coulthard, J. Daroussin, M.D. McMahon, "The Development of Land Quality Indicators for Soil Degradation by Water Erosion," Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment. Vol. 81, pp. 125-135. 2000.
Buol, S.W., F.D. Hole and R.J. Cracken, "Soil Genesis and Classification," The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. 1980.
Sukamto, R., "Geological Map", Sheet Pangkajene and West Watampone, Research and Development of Geologi, Bandung, 1982.
Food and Agriculture Organization, "Guidelines for Profile Description", FAO, Rome, 1977.
Yves-Dady Botula, Wim M. Cornelis, Geert Baert, Paul Mafuka, Eric Van Ranst, "Particle Size Distribution Models for Soil of The Humid Tropics". Journal of Soil and Sediments, Vol. 13, pp. 686-698, April 2013.
Fuyuki Satoh, Toshio Sakuma, and Hideo Okajima. "A Toposequnce of Fine-Textured Soils in the Hilly Area of the Northernmost Part of Hokkaido". Journal Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 9-11. 1990.
Brindley, G.W. and Brown, G., "Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and Their X-ray Identification," Mineralogical Society, Monograph No. 5, London, 1980.
De Coninck, F.,"Physico Chemical Aspects of Pedogenesis," ITC-RUG, Belgium, 1978.
Susumu S. Abe, Sadahiro Yamamoto, and Toshiyuki Wakatsuki. "Physicochemical and Morphological Properties of Termite (Macrotermes bellicosus) Mounds and Surrounding Pedons on a Toposequence of an Inland Valley in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria". Journal Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 514-522. 2009.
Fabricio de A.Pedron, Antonio C. de Azevedo, and Ricardo S.D. Dalmolin. "Mineral Weathering in Neossolos in a Climo-Litosequence on the Rio Grande do Sul Plateau, Brazil". Journal Siencia Rural, Vol. 42, No. 3, March 2012.
Sieffermann, G. and Milliot, G.,"Equatorial and Tropical Weathering of Recent basalt from Cameroun: Allophane, Halloysite, Metahalloysite, Kaolinite, and Gibbsite, Proc. Int. Clay Conf. Tokyo. 1989.
Moore, D.M. and Reynold, R.C. "X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals", 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997.
Wayne P. Robarge. "Mineral: Solubility", Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Second Edition, Published: 12 December 2007.
Dongmei Zhou, Dengjun Wang, Long Cang, Xiuzhen Hao, and Lingyang Chu. "Transport and Re-entrainment of Soil Colloids in Saturated Packed Column: Effects of pH and Ionic Strength". Journal of Soils and Sediment, Vol. 11, N0. 3, pp. 491-503. April 2011.
Dominique Righi, Fabio Terribile, and Sabine Petit. "Pedogenic Formation of Kaolinite-Smectite Mixed Layers in a Soil Toposequence Developed From Basaltic Parent Material in Sardinia (Italy)". Journal of Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 505-514. 1999.
Hermine Hout, M.O. Simonnot, Philippe Marion, Jacques Yvon, Philippe De Donato, J.L. Morel., "Characteristics and Potential Pedogenetic Processes of a Technosol Devoloping on Iron Industry Deposits," Journal of Soil and Sediments, Vol. 13, pp. 555-568, March 2013.
Mostafa Fayek, T. Mark Harrison, Marty Grove, and Christopher D. Coath. "A Rapid In Situ Method for Determining the Ages of Uranium Oxide Minerals: Evaluation of the Cigar Lake Deposit, Athabasca Basin". International Geology Review, Vol. 42, No. 2, July 2010.
Z. Y. Hseu, H. Tsai, H.C. Hsi, and Y.C. Chen. "Weathering Sequences of Clay Minerals in Soils along a Serpentinitic Toposequence". Journal Clays and Clay Minerals. Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 389-401. August 2007.
Jafari A, Shariatmadari H, Khademi H, Rezainejad Y. "Soil Clay Mineralogy in Four Toposequences from Arid and Semiarid Regions and Its Relationship with Kinetics of Phosphorus Release". JWSS - Isfahan University of Technology. Vol. 12, No.44, pp. 153-168. 2008.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186