The increasing need for water in the arid areas of the world has resulted in the emergence of wastewater application for agriculture and landscape. This study aims to determine the mechanism and the functioning of waste water purification plant in the city of Tabuk, and see if the water was purified by the station impacted positively on the environment surrounding human beings, as well as determine if we can re-use the treated water in the various human uses. The objective of this research was to establish the operational parameters of Influent and effluent such as temperature, pH, TSS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), TN, TP, and oil & grease (O&G). Three years of data (2010-2012) were manually collected at both the inlet and outlet. The results indicated that the pH was in between 6.213 to 7.493. Municipal wastewater showed that the TSS, BOD and COD were within the Saudi standards.It was revealed from the performance study that efficiency of the treatment plant was good with respect to removal of parameters like total suspended solids, BOD and COD. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, and FS. The treated effluent can be safely discharged or it can be reused for irrigation of a fodder crops, golf course, green way, parks, for landscaping and for groundwater recharge. This work has confirmed that, the plant efficiency is comparable to that of other Saudi’s wastewater plants using the same or different type of biological treatment. Finally, based on this analysis, we proceed to identify niches in which wastewater reuse could be increased.
Ayman H. Al-Momani,
Monitoring and Analysis of Tabuk Sewage TreatmentPlant, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 1, No. 3,
2013, pp. 84-90.
Al-Momani, Ayman H.,Management of Flood Risks at the City Of Tabuk, 4th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC Davos 2012.
Abu-Rizaiza, O.S., 1999. Modification of the standards of wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia. Water Research 33, 2601e2608.
Alabdula'aly, A.I., 1997. Trace metals in Riyadh public water supplies. The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 22, 165.
Al-Jlil, S.A., 2009 COD and BOD reduction of domestic wastewater using activated sludge, sand filters and activated carbon in Saudi Arabia. Biotechnology, 9: 473-477.
Al-Musallam, L., 2006. Water and Wastewater Privatization in Saudi Arabia, SAWEA 2006 Workshop: Privatization and Outsourcing of Water and Wastewater.
Al-Rehaili, A.M., 1997. Municipal wastewater treatment and reuse in Saudi Arabia. Arabian J. Sci. Eng. 22 (1C), 143–152.
Al-Turki, A., 2003. Swage water quality of Unizah wastewater treatment plant and its suitability for irrigation. Journal of Agricultural science, Mansoura University, 28: 5861 – 5872.
Al-Masry,W.A., and M.A. El-Kady, 2007. Advanced Environmental Assessment And Emission Control Of Generating Power Plants, Proceedings of the Seventh Saudi Engineering Conference, Volume II, Riyadh 2-5, December 2007.
Angelakis, A.N., Marecos, M.H.F., Bontoux, L., Asano, T., 1999. The status of wastewater re-use practice in the Mediterranean basin need for guidelines. Water Resour. 33 (10), 2201–2217.
Al-Rehaili, Abdullah M., 1997. Municipal wastewater treatment and reuse in Saudi Arabia. The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering Vol.22, No.10, 143.
Bahri, A. (2008). "Water reuse in Middle Eastern and North African countries." In Water Reuse: An international Survey of Current Practice, Issues and Needs (eds. B. Jimenez and T. Asano). IWA Publishing, London.
Bahri, A. (2002). "Water Reuse in Tunisia: Stakes and Prospects." In Versunemaîtrise des impacts environnementaux de l’irrigation: Atelier du PCSI. Montpellier, France: CEMAGREF, CIRAD, IRD, Cédérom du CIRAD.
Chanduvi, F., 2000. Worldwide status of wastewater treatment in irrigation. In: Paper Presented at Agroenviron 2000. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on New Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Agro Applications.
Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD (2005). Standard method for examination of water and wastewater. APHA, WPCF, AWWA, 21th ed., Washington DC.
Crites RW, Tchobanoglous G. Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. McGraw-Hill. 1998; 5-20.
Choukr-Allah, R., and Hamdy, A. (2004). "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Mediterranean Region as a Potential Resource for Drought Mitigation." http://ressources.ciheam.org/om/pdf/a66/00800302.pdf [Accessed December12, 2012].
Crook, J., 2003. Water reuse—an overview. Keynote Speech Presented at MED-REUNET 1 Project, International Seminar on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, Izmir, Turkey, 25–26 September 2003. Website: Mediterranean network on wastewater reclamation and reuse. www.med-reunet.com.
De la Nou¨ e, J., De Pauw, N., 1988. The potential of microalgal biotechnology. A review of production and uses of microalgae. Biotechnol. Adv. 6, 725–770.
ESCWA, 2001a. Energy Options for Water Desalination in Selected ESCWA Member Countries. United Nations, New York.
ESCWA, 2001b. The Role of DesalinatedWater in Augmentation of theWater Supply in Selected ESCWA Member Countries. United Nations, New York.
Euromonitor International, 2011. Sewage and Sanitation in Saudi Arabia: Industrial Report.
FAO, 2008. Irrigation in the Middle East Region in Figures: AQUASTAT Survey e2008, FAO Water Reports. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 423 p.
Gray N.F.(1989), Biology of Wastewater Treatment, Oxford University Press, New York
Gregory, A., 2000. Strategic direction of water recycling in Sydney. In: Proceeding of the First Symposium Water Recycling, Australia, Adelaide, 19–20 October, pp. 35–41.
Hamoda, M.F., 2004. Water strategies and potential of water reuse in the south Mediterranean countries. Desalination 165, 31e41.
Hamoda, M.F., I., Al-Ghusain and N.Z., Al-Mutair, 2004, Sand filtration of wastewater for tertiary treatment and reuse. Desalination, 164:203 – 211.
Horan, N.J., 1990. Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems. Theory and operation. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Baffins Lane, Chickester. West Sussex PO 191 UD, England.
Jimenez, B., Asano, T., 2008. Water Reuse: An International Survey of Current Practice, Issues and Needs. IWA Publishing, London, 631 p.
Lallana, C., Krinner, W., Estrela, T., Nixon, S., Leonard, J., Berland, J.M., 2001. Sustainable water use in Europe, Part 2: demand management. In: Environmental Issues. Report No. 19. European Environment Agency.
Lim, S., Chu, W., Phang, S., 2010. Use of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile wastewater. J. Bioresour. Technol. 101, 7314–7322.
Mashhady, A.S., 1984. Heavy metals extractable from a calcareous soil treated with sewage sludge. Environmental Pollution (Series B) 8, 5.
Meli, S., Porto, M., Belligno, A., Bufo, S.A., Mazzatura, A., Scopa, A., 2002. Influence of irrigation with lagooned urban wastewater on chemical and microbiological soil parameters in a citrus orchard under Mediterranean condition. Sci. Total Environ. 285, 69–77.
Ministry of Water & Electricity, (2012), Supporting Documents
Oron, G., Campos, C., Gillerman, L., Salgot, M., 1999. Wastewater treatment, renovation and reuse for agricultural irrigation in small communities. Agric. Water Manage. 38, 223–234.
Oron, G., DeMalach, J., Hoffman, Z., Manor, Y., 1992. Effect of effluent quality and application method on agriculture productivity and environmental control. Water Sci. Technol. 26 (7–8), 1593–1601.
Peasey, A., Blumenthal, U., Mara, D., Ruiz-Palacios, G., 2000. A review of policy and standards for wastewater reuse in agriculture: a Latin American Perspective. WELL Study, Task No. 68 Part 11.
Pereira, L., Oweis, S.T., Zairi, A., 2002. Irrigation management under water scarcity. Agric. Water Manage. 57, 175–206.
Qadir, M., Bahri, A., Sato, T., Al-Karadsheh, E., 2010. Wastewater production, treatment, and irrigation in Middle East and North Africa. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 24, 37e51.
Qadir, M., Sharma, B.R., Bruggeman, A., Choukr-Allah, R., Karajeh, F., 2007. Non -conventional water resources and opportunities for water augmentation to achieve food security in water scarce countries. Agric. Water Manage. 87 (1), 2–22.
Ramirez-Fuentes, E., Lucho-Constantino, C., Escamilla-Silva, E., Dendooven, L., 2002. Characteristics and carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soil irrigated with wastewater for different lengths of time. Bioresour. Technol. 85, 179–187.
Sadiq, M., Hussain, G., 1997. Drinking water quality in Saudi Arabia—an overview. The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 22, 153.
SAMC, 2010. Forty Sixth Annual Report: The Latest Economic Developments 1431H (2010G). Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency: Research and Statistics Department, Riyadh.
Saudi Gazette, 2010. Mideast Steps Up Drive for Water Reuse Technologies: Kingdom Third Largest Consumer of Water, Saudi Gazette. Saudi Gazette, Jeddah.
Sonune, A. and Ghate, R. (2004). Developments in wastewater treatment methods. Journal of Desalination, 167: 55–63.
Shetty, S., 2004. Wastewater use in Tunisia: lessons learned and the road ahead. In: Scott, C., Faruqui, N.I., Raschid, L. (Eds.), Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International, Orient- Longman, and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 163–171.
Tchobanoglous G, Burton, F, Stensel H (2004). Wastewater engineering: Treatment and Reuse, 4th ed. Metcalf & Eddy Inc .McGraw- Hill. New York, pp. 30-69.
Tebbutt, T.H.Y., 1983. Principles of water quality control. Pergammon Press, Oxford.
Toze, S., 2006. Reuse of effluent water—benefits and risks. Agric. Water Manage. 80, 147–159.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1992. U.S. EPA. Offices of water and wastewater and compliance (Ed.) Guidelines for water reuse. U.S. EPA, Washington. WA State Water Strategy.
WHO, 1989. Health guidelines for the use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. Technical report series no. 778. World Health Organization, Geneva.
World Bank, 1996. From Scarcity to Security, Averting a Water Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa. The World Bank, Washington, DC.