Please enter verification code
Confirm
Current Dynamics of Hydric Erosion in the Kingouari, Mfilou and Djoué Watersheds in the Southwestern Part of Brazzaville City (Congo)
Earth Sciences
Volume 9, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages: 201-209
Received: Aug. 26, 2020; Accepted: Sep. 15, 2020; Published: Oct. 12, 2020
Views 79      Downloads 33
Authors
Jean de Dieu Nzila, Natural Sciences Department, Higher College of Teacher Training (ENS), Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; National Forest Research Institute (IRF), Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Noel Watha-Ndoudy, National Forest Research Institute (IRF), Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Geology Department, Sciences and Technics Faculty, (FST), Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Delestras Kaya-Mabiala, Natural Sciences Department, Higher College of Teacher Training (ENS), Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Pierre Mboungou-Nsompi, Natural Sciences Department, Higher College of Teacher Training (ENS), Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Dieudonne Louembe, National Forest Research Institute (IRF), Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Geography Department, Faculty of Literature, Arts and Humanities (FLASH), Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Victor Kimpouni, Natural Sciences Department, Higher College of Teacher Training (ENS), Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; National Forest Research Institute (IRF), Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Marie Joseph Samba Kimbata, Geography Department, Faculty of Literature, Arts and Humanities (FLASH), Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The objective of this study is to quantify soil losses in the Kinsoundi 16A district, located in the Kingouari, Mfilou and Djoué watersheds. The aim is to highlight the current dynamic of water erosion in this southwestern part of Brazzaville's urban area and to evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures used. The methodological approach adopted was based on: (i) the measurement of the evolution of the soil surface, using profilometers placed on the 12 main roads in the district where 68 measurement points have been installed, (ii) the three-dimensional measurement (volume) of 22 ravines and gullies that incise the district, (iii) the measurement of slopes along arteries using a clinometer, (iv) the inventory of facilities used to control soil erosion, (v) interviews with populations to understand the history of the phenomenon and the control methods used. The soil losses by surface stripping, measured on 12 roads from 2007 to 2010, are 78.1 t/ha. A destruction of 4.7 ha of land, or 2% of the Kinsoundi 16A territory and 94,247 t/ha of land, was removed from these watersheds in 20 years by the 22 ravines. The aggressive nature of this dynamic is explained by the combination of the following natural and anthropogenic factors: frequent rains (≥ 15 days/month) very erosive with a Rusa index of 287 to 866 points, sandy soils with more than 90%, without cohesion and fragile, densification of the habitat on the ground (2 houses on average per plot of 400 m2), resulting in increased waterproofing of surfaces and responsible for the current erosive runoff, the absence of channels to canalize and control runoff, hence roads transformed into storm water collectors. The control measures used by the populations are inadequate and therefore not very effective (bags of soil that can be degraded in three months, used tires, solid waste dumped at the head of the ravines). Those financed by the State are expensive gabions but of limited effectiveness around the treated ravine. It is therefore imperative to treat the entire district as a risk watershed, by strengthening its vulnerable sectors and by building and developing a coherent system to control rainwater runoff. These curative measures must be underpinned by preventive actions that are more effective and less expensive.
Keywords
Brazzaville, Urban Space, Water Erosion, Gully, Profilometer
To cite this article
Jean de Dieu Nzila, Noel Watha-Ndoudy, Delestras Kaya-Mabiala, Pierre Mboungou-Nsompi, Dieudonne Louembe, Victor Kimpouni, Marie Joseph Samba Kimbata, Current Dynamics of Hydric Erosion in the Kingouari, Mfilou and Djoué Watersheds in the Southwestern Part of Brazzaville City (Congo), Earth Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 5, 2020, pp. 201-209. doi: 10.11648/j.earth.20200905.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Louembé D., Nzila J. D., 2007. Impact assessment studies for the development of eroded areas and for the construction and rehabilitation of paved roads and tertiary drainage network in Brazzaville. PURICV-IDA, Brazzaville, 96 p. + annexes.
[2]
Louembé D., 1978. The modalities of erosion on the urban site of Brazzaville. T. E. R. of tropical geomorphology, UMNG, Brazzaville, 115 p.+annexes.
[3]
Louembé D., Tchicaya J. A., 1993. The problems of degradation of urban sites by water erosion in southern Congo. PNAE-Congo, Brazzaville, 114 p.
[4]
Ngabaka-Koubango A., 2004. Current erosion dynamics in a watershed of the Mfilou River in Massina (Brazzaville, Congo). CAICEG Memory, Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, 59 p. + Annexes.
[5]
Mboungou-Nsompi P., 2006. Manifestation of water erosion and methods of control in the districts of Brazzaville: case of the watersheds of Kinsoundi, M'filou-Kingouari and Mbimi-Massina. CAICEG Memory, Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, 78 p.
[6]
Kaya-Mabiala D., 2007. Current dynamics of water erosion in the Kingouari, Mfilou and Djoué watersheds (district 16A Kinsoundi-Brazzaville). CAPES Memory, Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, 65p + Annexes.
[7]
Mayima A. B., 2007. Study of erosion in the Kingouari, Kinsoundi, Météo, Ngangouoni and Moukoundzi-Ngouaka districts in the Djoué watershed south of Brazzaville. Master's thesis in physical geography, Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, 118 p.
[8]
Cosson J., 1955. Explicative notice on the Pointe-Noire and Brazzaville maps. General Government of French Equatorial Africa, Paris, 56 p.
[9]
Alvarez Ph., Marin J-C. et Vicat J-P., 1995. The formation of the Inkisi (West Congolese Supergroup) in Central Africa (Congo and Bas-Zaire): a Paleozoic age delta filling an expanding basin. Journal of Earth Sciences, 20 (2), 119-131.
[10]
Le Marechal A., 1966. Contribution to the study of the Plateaux Batéké. Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrogeology. ORSTOM Brazzaville, 24 p.
[11]
Dadet P., 1969. Explicative notice for the geological map of the Republic of Congo-Brazzaville at 1/500000 (zone between parallels 2 and 5° South). BRGM memory N° 70, Paris, 103 p.
[12]
Samba-Kimbata M. J., 1978. The climate of Bas-Congo. Doctoral thesis, University of Dijon, France, 280 p.
[13]
Denis B., 1974: Explicative notice n°52. Soil map Brazzaville -Kinkala, People's Republic of Congo at 1/200,000. ORSTOM, Paris, 101 p.
[14]
Schwartz D., 1987. Soils around Brazzaville and their use. ORSTOM, Pointe-Noire, 21 p.
[15]
Mietton M., Cordier S., Frechen M., Dubar M., Beiner M., Andrianaivoarivony R., 2014. New insights into the age and formation of the Ankarokaroka lavak and its associated sandy cover (NW Madagascar, Ankarafantsika natural reserve). Earth Surface Processes Landforms, 39, 1467-1477.
[16]
CNSEE, 1996. Population estimates for the Republic of Congo. Unpublished document. CNSEE, Brazzaville, 343 p.
[17]
Feret J. B., Sarrailh J. M., 2005. Use of a simple and accurate measuring device for the study of erosion in Mayotte. Woods and forests in the tropics, 286, 29-40.
[18]
Roose E., 1980. Some conclusions of French research on current soil dynamics in West Africa. ORSTOM Papers, Pedological Serie, XVIII (3-4), 285-296.
[19]
Roose E., 1981. Current Dynamics of Tropical Ferrallitic and Ferruginous Soils in West Africa. ORSTOM, Paris, 570 p.
[20]
Mesrar H., Sadiki A., Navas A., Faleh A., Quijan L., Chaaouan J., 2014. Water erosion modeling and causal factor studies. Case of wadi Sahla, Morocco. Proceedings of the Symposium on the National Water Information System. 02-04 décember 2014, 7-15.
[21]
Kémpéna A., Guardado R. L., Bilembi D., 2016. Estimating Soil Loss by Water Erosion in the Microwatersheds of Brazzaville City. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 5 (12), 1623-1626.
[22]
Kombo-Kissangou R. J., Sitou L., M’bouka Milandou I., 2018. Dynamics of water erosion in the Mansimou and Mayanga neighborhoods south of Brazzaville (Congo): analysis of soil permeability and texture, cubage and mapping of gullies. Moroccan Journal of Geomorphology, 2, 36-54.
[23]
Kémpéna A., Boudzoumou F., Nganga D. and Ray H., 2014. Cartography of environmental vulnerability to soil erosion of the urban area of Brazzaville using Geographic Information System (GIS). Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3 (5), 35-43.
[24]
Jaoued M., Gueddari M., Saadaoui M., 2005. Modelling of water erosion in the watershed of the wadi M'Khachbia (North-West Tunisia). Geo-Eco-Trop, 29, 15-24.
[25]
Zouagui A., Sabir M., Naimi M., Chikhaoui M., Benmansour M., 2018. Modelling the risk of water erosion using the universal equation of land loss in the Western Rif: case of the Moulay Bouchta watershed (Morocco). European Scientific Journal, 14 (3), 524-544.
[26]
Markhi A., Laftouhi N. E., Soulaimani A., Fniguire F., 2015. Quantification and evaluation of water erosion using the Rusle model and deposition integrated in a GIS. Application in the N'Fis watershed in the High Atlas of Marrakech (Morocco). European Scientific Journal, 11 (29), 340-356.
[27]
Sadiki A., Faleh A., Zêrere J. L., Mastass H., 2009. Quantification of sheet erosion in the Sahla Wadi watershed. Geographic Papers, 6, 59-70.
[28]
Yjjou M., Bouabid R., El Hmaidi A., Essahlaoui A., El Abassi M., 2014. Modelling of water erosion using GIS and the universal soil loss equation at the level of the Oum Er-Rbia catchment area. The International Journal of Engineering and Sciences, 3 (8), 83-91.
[29]
Meliho M., Khattabi A., Mhammdi N., Hongming Z., 2016. Water erosion risk mapping using the revised universal equation of soil loss, remote sensing and GIS in the Ourika watershed (High Atlas, Morocco). European Scientific Journal, 12 (32), 277-297.
[30]
Kémpéna A., Bilembi D., Boudzoumou F., & Nganga D., 2014. Methodology for erosion risk zoning in the city of Brazzaville study of case in the urban area. ARPN Journal of Earth Sciences, 3 (1), 9-16.
[31]
Van Caillie X. D., 1989. Erodability of sandy soils in Zaire and erosion control. ORSTOM Papers, Pedological serie, XXV (1-2), 197-208.
[32]
Plamondon A. P., 2009. Integrated management plan for the Mateo and Las Aguas watersheds in Haiti and Comendor, Alonso, Caña and Las Lagunas in the Dominican Republic. Binational project for the rehabilitation of the Artibonite River watershed in the border area between Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Project No. 4456/A-031937). Consortium Oxfam-Québec / CRCR Sogema, 123 p.
[33]
Plamondon A. P., 2010. Hydrology, erosion and watershed management in the tropical rainforest biome. Course manual. Faculty of Forestry, Geography and Geomatics. Laval University, Quebec, Canada. 717 p.
[34]
Nzoussi H. K., Feng L. J., 2014. Management of the urban environment in Brazzaville: problems and perspectives. European Scientific Journal, 10 (29), 209-216.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186