Comparative Effects of Basalt Dust, NPK 20-10-10 and Poultry Manure on Soil Fertility and Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Productivity in Bafut (Cameroon Volcanic Line)
Earth Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 323-334
Received: Oct. 19, 2019; Accepted: Nov. 12, 2019; Published: Nov. 19, 2019
Views 502      Downloads 224
Primus Azinwi Tamfuh, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon; Department of Mining and Mineral Engineering, National Higher Polytechnic Institute, University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon
Pierre Wotchoko, Department of Geology, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon
Djibril Gus Kouankap Nono, Department of Geology, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon
Carine Naah Yuh Ndofor, Department of Geology, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon
David Guimolaire Nkouathio, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Dieudonné Bitom, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Article Tools
Follow on us
Although chemical fertilizers have boosted food production in the last century, their efficiency is limited by their low potential to remineralize and restore chemically depleted soils at long term. This work investigates the comparative effects of basalt dust, poultry manure and NPK 20-10-10 on soil fertility and cucumber performance in Bafut (North-West Cameroon). The work was done in the field and in the laboratory. The experimental plot (82 m2) was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments (and three replications): control (T0), 2.5 tons ha-1 of basalt dust (T1), 20 tons ha-1 of poultry manure (T2), 0.7 tons ha-1 of NPK 20-10-10 fertilizer (T3) and 5 tons ha-1 of basalt dust (T4). The main results revealed that T0 showed a sandy clayey loam texture, acidic pH (5.1), very high organic carbon (6.4%), low total nitrogen (0.2%) and moderately available phosphorus (16.70 mg kg-1). The exchangeable complex revealed high K (1.02 cmol (+). kg-1), very low Ca (0.45 cmol (+). kg-1) and Mg2+ (0.17 cmol (+). kg-1), low Na+ (0.2 cmol (+). kg-1), very low sum of exchangeable bases (1.84 cmol (+). kg-1), very low cation exchange capacity (CEC) and a moderate base saturation (43.4%). The C/N was very high (23) indicating very poor quality organic matter and a potentially very slow mineralization rate. After treatment, pH, exchangeable bases Ca and Mg increased after harvest whereas Na and K decreased for all the treatments. The growth and yield parameters of all treatments, except number of fruits, were such that T2>T3>T4>T1>T0. The numbers of fruits were as follows: T2>T4>T3>T1>T0. The most economically viable soil treatment was attained by T2 with a profit rate (PR) of 933% and a VCR value of 10.3. Treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 were all profitable since their value-to cost ratio (VCR)>1, but only T2 and T3 show a VCR (value-to-cost ratio) greater than 2 and are thus recommended for popularization.
Basalt Dust, Crop Production, Cucumber, Soil Remineralisation, Bafut, Cameroon Volcanic Line
To cite this article
Primus Azinwi Tamfuh, Pierre Wotchoko, Djibril Gus Kouankap Nono, Carine Naah Yuh Ndofor, David Guimolaire Nkouathio, Dieudonné Bitom, Comparative Effects of Basalt Dust, NPK 20-10-10 and Poultry Manure on Soil Fertility and Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Productivity in Bafut (Cameroon Volcanic Line), Earth Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 6, 2019, pp. 323-334. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Thompkins, P. and C. Bird (1989) Secrets of the soils. Penguin Books, London.
Diver, S. (1998). Rock dust in agriculture: Insights on Remineralisation and paramagnetism. Appropriate Technology Transfer for Royal Areas, London.
Yeomans, A. J. (2005). Together we can Beat Global Warming. Sydney, Keyline Publishing limited ( 492 P.
Hamaker, J. D. and D. Weaver (1982). The survival of civilization. Hamaker-Weaver publication, Michigan-California, USA. 219p.
Leidig, G. (1993). Rock dust and microbial action in soil: the symbiotic relationship between composting and mineral additives. Remineralize the Earth 4-5, 12-14.
Campe, J. (1995) Pot tests with rock dust for corn. Remineralize the Earth 37, 7-8.
Alanna, M. (2001) Stone Age Farming: Eco-agriculture for the 21st Century. Queensland, Python Press, 213p.
Nganfi, F. (1997) Amélioration des conditions physico-chimiques et la fertilité des sols par l’utilisation directe de certaines roches. Mémoire. Maitrise, Université de Dschang, 67p.
Nkouathio, D. G., P. Wandji, J. M. Bardintzeff, P. Tematio, D. A. Kagou and F. M. Tchoua (2008) Utilisation des roches volcaniques pour la reminéralisation des sols ferrallitiques des régions tropicales. Cas des pyroclastites basaltiques du graben de Tombel (Ligne volcanique du Cameroun). Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, 91 (1), 1-14.
Tetsopgang, S., P. Kamga, F. Paul, A. Gonang, B. Alemanji, D. Z. Manjo and L. Mazoh (2014) Effect of Powders of Basalts, Tuff, Granites, and Pyroclastic Materials on Yield and Quality of Carrots and Cabbages Grown on Tropical Soils in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. Geotherapy 25, 435-443.
Fotsa, T. J. M. (2015). Effect of basalt, granite and gneiss, associated to Tithonia diversifolia (sunflower) on growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Bamougoum (West Region, Cameroon). Master thesis, University of Bamenda, 58p.
Tchouankoue, J. P., T. A. N. Tetchou, A. M. Abossolo, C. Ngansop and T. S. Huff (2015). Rock fertilizers as an alternative to conventional fertilizers: The use of basalt from the Cameroon Volcanic Line for maize farming on ferralitic soils. Geotherapy 26, 445-458.
Kamgang, P., G. Chazot, E. Njonfang, N. N. B. Tchuimegnie and F. M. Tchoua (2013). Mantle sources and magma evolution beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Geochemistry of mafic rocks from the Bamenda Mountains (NW Cameroon). Gondwana Research 24, 727-741.
Etia, P. M. (1980). Climate and Climatic Zones of Cameroon. In: JA, Ed., Les Atlas Jeune Afrique, Paris, France, p.16-19.
Acho-Chi, C. (1998). Human interference and environmental instability addressing consequences of rapid urban growth in Bamenda. Environment and Urbanization 10 (2), 161-174.
Azinwi Tamfuh, P., D. Tsozué, M. A. Tita, Boukong, A., R. T. Ngnipa, H. T. Ntangmo and A. D. Mvondo Ze (2017). Effect of Topographic Position and Seasons on the Micronutrient Levels in Soils and Grown Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) in Bafut (North-West Cameroon). World Journal of Agricultural Research 5 (2), 73-87.
Van Reeuwijk, L. (2002). Procedures for soil analysis. 6th edition, ISRIC, FAO, Wageningen.
Walkley, A. and I. A. Black (1934). Determination of organic matter in soil. Soil Science 37, 549-556.
Bremner, J. M. and C. S Mulvaney (1982). Total Nitrogen. In: Buxton, D. R., ed., Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. American Society of Agronomy Inc. and SSSA Inc, Madison, USA.
Olsen, S. R. and L. E. Sommers (1982). Phosphorus. In: Page AL, Buxton RH, Miller Keeney DR, Editors. Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy Madison, 403-430p.
Thomas, G. W. (1982). Exchangeable cations. In: Page AL, Buxton RH, Miller Keeney DR, Editors. Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 159-165p.
Rhoades, J. D., (1982). Cation exchange capacity. In: Page AL, Buxton RH, D. R. Miller Keeney, Eds., Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 149-158p.
Beernaert, F. and D. Bitondo (1993). Land evaluation manual. Dschang University Centre, Dschang.
Khiddir, S. M. (1986). A statistical approach in the use of parametric systems applied to the FAO Framework for land evaluation. Ph.D. Thesis, State University of Ghent, Ghent.
Beernaert, F. and D. Bitondo (1991). Simple and Practical Methods to Evaluate Analytical Data of Soil Profiles. Belgian Cooperation University of Dschang, Dschang.
FAO (1990). The design of agricultural investment projects-Lessons from experience. Technical paper no. 5. Investment Centre, FAO, Rome.
Tankou, C. B. (1996). Vegetable crops. University of Dschang, Dschang.
Sarker, M. S. (2005). Effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield quality of radish. Master’s thesis, Agriculture University of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
Low, R. (2017). Gardening tips using rock dust as a fertilizer. CanAmaze Volcanic Rock Dust Rock Powder. Accessed on 9/11/2019 at 7.30pm
Asongwe, G. A., B. K., Yerima and A. S. Tening (2015). Spatial variability of selected physico-chemical properties of soils under vegetable cultivation in urban and peri-urban wetland gardens of Bamenda municipality, Cameroon. African Journal of Agricultural Research 11 (2), 74-86p. DOI: 15.5897/AJAR2015.10401
Yerima, B. P. K. and E., Van Ranst (2005). Soils of Cameroon: distribution, genesis, characteristic, management and utilization. Publishing Victoria B. C., Trafford.
Tisdale, S. L. and W. L. Nelson, J. D. Beaton (1985). Soil fertility and fertilizer, 4th ed. Macmillan, New York, 249-291.
Sauter, V. U. and K. Forest (1987). Information for the application of silicate dust for the amelioration of forest soils. Bavarian Research Institute Journal 2, 27-30.
Goldich, S. S. (1938). A study of rock weathering. Journal of Geology 46, 17-58.
Gillman, G. P., D. C. Buekkett and J. R. Coventry (2002). Amending highly weathered soils with finely ground basalt rock. Applied Geochemistry 17, 987-1001.
Van Straaten, P. (2002). Rocks for crops: agrominerals of sub-Saharan Africa. ICRAF, Nairobi.
Van Straaten, P. (2017). Rocks for crops in the world. Remineralize the earth. Organic Gardening Resource Centre. Website: Accessed on 08/11/2019 at 7.15 pm.
Wotchoko, P., C. S. Guedjeo, H. Mbouobda, G. Ngnoupeck, Z. Itiga, Y. A. B. Nwobiwo, D. G. Nkouathio, A. and A. D Kagou (2016). Remineralisation of tropical ferralitic soils using volcanic rock (tephra) powder in the fertilization of Bambili soils, experimented on Zea mays, Cameroon. International Journal of Development Research 6 (04), 7552-7556.
Silva, J. A. and R. S. Uchida (2000). Plant nutrient management in Hawaii’s soils: Approaches for tropical and subtropical agriculture. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Monoa, Honulu, 4-151p.
Leonardos, O. H., W. S. Fyfe and B. I. Kronberg (1987). The use of ground rocks in laterite systems: An improvement in the use of conventional soluble fertilizers? Chemical Geology 60, 361-370.
Ramezanian, A., A. S. Dablin, C. B. Campbell, S. Hillier, B. Mannerstedt-Fogelfors, I. Öborn (2013). Addition of a volcanic rock dust to soils has no observable effects on yield and nutrient status or soil microbial activity. In: Walter, T. W and J. K. Syer (Eds), Pedogenesis, nutrient dynamics and ecosystem development and Soil, Vol. 367 (1-2), part 1, Plant and Soil: New York, pp. 419-436.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186