A Survey of the Usage and Users of Codeine Containing Cough Syrups in Maiduguri Nigeria
Advances in Psychology and Neuroscience
Volume 2, Issue 2-1, March 2017, Pages: 42-46
Received: Jan. 9, 2017; Accepted: Jan. 12, 2017; Published: Feb. 14, 2017
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Authors
Garba Uthman S., Department of Parmachology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Maidugri, Nigeria
Sholey Zakama G., Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Maidugri, Nigeria
Maryam Modu B., Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Maidugri, Nigeria
Usama Bugaje U., Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Maidugri, Nigeria
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Abstract
The Directorate of Narcotic and Controlled substances of the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and control (NAFDAC) disclosed that a large number of Nigerians are abusing the prescription of codeine. The following work studied this illicit drug utilization in Maiduguri metropolitan Area of Borno State of Nigeria, with the aim of understanding the socio-political factors surrounding the menace in the Society. A questionnaire based survey was conducted within the study area. Volunteers numbering 210 were recruited from consented premises of pharmacies and drug shops within the Local Government Area. The questionnaire basically addressed demography of users of Codeine Containing Cough Syrups (CCCS) and socio-political factors surrounding the usage. Data obtained were analyzed using simple descriptive and inferential statics. Of the 210 users of CCCS 95.2% were males and mainly (71.0%) in their twenties. Majority of the respondents are either students (39.0%) or self employed (23.3%). The predominant educational qualifications are secondary school certificate (51.9%) and diploma certificate (11.9%). Most (92.4%) of the respondents perceived that they administer CCCS for medical purposes mainly to increase wellness. Associated feelings include; ‘feeling high’ (37.1%), ‘sleepiness and forgetting worries’ (6.7%) and calmness in the form of ‘decrease fighting urge’ (4.3%) and ‘decrease hyperactivity’ (2.9%). About 64.3% of the respondents admitted that they cannot go through a day without taking CCCS. The most popular feelings whenever CCCS is not taken includes: ‘sickness’ (17.6%), ‘not happy’ (14.8%), ‘sleepy or weakness’ (15.9%). Students and youths withing the age bracket of 20 to 30 years constituteed a sizable majority of CCCS users. The law surrounding the use of CCCS seems to have little impact on the usage seemingly due to poor enforcement, assuch agencies responsible for enforcing these laws sould be envigorated. A well-established surveillance system and target intervention programs are needed given the potential long-term negative outcomes of use of CCCS and other addictive PoM.
Keywords
Codeine, Cough Syrups, Maiduguri, Drug Abuse, NAFDAC
To cite this article
Garba Uthman S., Sholey Zakama G., Maryam Modu B., Usama Bugaje U., A Survey of the Usage and Users of Codeine Containing Cough Syrups in Maiduguri Nigeria, Advances in Psychology and Neuroscience. Special Issue:Substance Abuse: Perspectives, Trends, Issues and the Way Forward. Vol. 2, No. 2-1, 2017, pp. 42-46. doi: 10.11648/j.apn.s.2017020201.18
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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