Tramadol Abuse Among Patients Attending An Addiction Clinic in North-Eastern Nigeria: Outcome of a Four Year Retrospective Study
Advances in Psychology and Neuroscience
Volume 2, Issue 2-1, March 2017, Pages: 31-37
Received: Sep. 28, 2016; Accepted: Sep. 30, 2016; Published: Feb. 14, 2017
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Authors
Ibrahim A. W., Department of Mental Health, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria; Department of Mental Health, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Yerima M. M., College of Medical Sciences, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria
Pindar S. K., Department of Mental Health, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Onyencho V. C., Department of Clinical Psychology, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Ahmed H. K., Department of Mental Health, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Machina B. K., Department of Mental Health, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Shehu S., Department of Psychiatry, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria
Rabbebe I. B., Department of Mental Health, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Wakil M. A., Department of Mental Health, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
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Abstract
The 21st century Nigeria has witnessed changing trends in the patterns of psychoactive substance use with Tramadol HCl emerging as a candidate drug in the North-eastern region of the country. This study assessed the prevalence, patterns and the reasons behind the sustained use of Tramadol in a sub-population of drug users. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study in which socio-demographic, clinical and drug-related data were extracted from the clinical records of 237 drug users attending the addiction clinic of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri, North-eastern Nigeria. The prevalence of Tramadol abuse was 54.4% [n=129] and 78 [60.5%, 95% C.I. = 54.1 - 65.7] met the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for Tramadol dependence. Over 93% of Tramadol users were males and 87 [67.4%, 95% C.I. = 59.9 - 73.4] were in the 18 to 37 years age bracket. Over 67% used Tramadol in combination with other psychoactive substances while 65.1% [95% C.I. = 50.7 - 81.4] used multiple daily doses. Over 91% of the subjects obtained the drug without prescriptions and 12.4% [95% C.I. = 7.5 - 16.8] were first initiated to the drugs by prescriptions from health professionals. The commonest primary reasons for continuous usage were; to relieve tiredness [28.7%, 95% C.I.= 25.4 - 31.2] and to prolong the time of sexual intercourse [22.5%, 95% C.I. = 20.1 - 24.7]. Considering the addictive potentials of Tramadol, there is the need for; psychoeducational programmes for adolescents and young adults, rational prescriptions by clinicians and enhancing the operational capacities of regulatory agencies.
Keywords
Tramadol, Abuse, North-Eastern Nigeria
To cite this article
Ibrahim A. W., Yerima M. M., Pindar S. K., Onyencho V. C., Ahmed H. K., Machina B. K., Shehu S., Rabbebe I. B., Wakil M. A., Tramadol Abuse Among Patients Attending An Addiction Clinic in North-Eastern Nigeria: Outcome of a Four Year Retrospective Study, Advances in Psychology and Neuroscience. Special Issue:Substance Abuse: Perspectives, Trends, Issues and the Way Forward. Vol. 2, No. 2-1, 2017, pp. 31-37. doi: 10.11648/j.apn.s.2017020201.16
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Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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