Clinical Correlations Between Cesium, Cobalt, Manganese, Rubidium and Rhenium with the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Science Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 99-108
Received: Aug. 11, 2015; Accepted: Aug. 19, 2015; Published: Sep. 6, 2015
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Shatha Rouf Moustafa, Clinical Analysis Department, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Havalan City, Erbil, Iraq
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Background and Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases. Studies indicated that increased oxidative stress or defective antioxidant status with inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. This study was emphasized that levels of some trace elements altered due to oxidative stress and inflammatory process which are associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This study was aimed to assess the serum levels of cesium, cobalt, manganese, rubidium and rhenium in patients group as compared with the control group and investigate the effect of other confounding factors like rheumatoid factor, age, gender and finally estimate the correlation between studied parameters. It was hypothesized that there were an alteration in levels of parameters due to oxidative stress and inflammatory process which are associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Method: This case control study conducted on 56 Iraqi patients of both genders 30 men and 26 women with the average age (40-57) years and 56 of age –gender matched apparently healthy adults were also enrolled in this study as a control group. The patients were free from any diseases except rheumatoid arthritis and this was confirmed by clinical examination and biochemical and hematological tests. Levels of parameters were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometers. Results: There were no significant differences between RF positive and negative groups regarding the studied parameters. There were a significant reduction in cesium and rubidium and a significant elevations in cobalt, manganese and rhenium in patients as compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between rheumatoid factor positive and negative groups regarding focused parameters in men and women groups, except for age factor in women group, there were no significant differences between different age categories in rheumatoid factor positive and negative regarding focused parameters. In addition, there was no significant correlation among studied parameters. Conclusion: Levels of parameters were significantly altered in patients group. These alterations proved the possible association with pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the estimation of these parameters could be a useful complementary non-invasive diagnostic tool to determine trace elements status for treatment and diagnosis of disease. These variations are probably responsive to oxidative stress concomitant with inflammation induced by cytokines and resulted from defensive mechanism of patients. Inflammatory mediators affect on trace elements homeostasis in rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cesium, Cobalt, Manganese, Rubidium and Rhenium
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Shatha Rouf Moustafa, Clinical Correlations Between Cesium, Cobalt, Manganese, Rubidium and Rhenium with the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Science Journal of Clinical Medicine. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2015, pp. 99-108. doi: 10.11648/j.sjcm.20150405.15
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