Paralytic Toxin Profiles of Xanthid Crab Atergatis Floridus Collected on Reefs of Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan and Camotes Island, Cebu Province, Philippines
Science Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 75-81
Received: Aug. 1, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 26, 2014;
Published: Sep. 20, 2014
Views 3015 Downloads 173
Manabu Asakawa, Department of Biofunctional Science and Technology, Food Science and Biofunctions Division, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-4-4 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan
Shintaro Tsuruda, Department of Biofunctional Science and Technology, Food Science and Biofunctions Division, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-4-4 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan
Yasuyuki Ishimoto, Department of Biofunctional Science and Technology, Food Science and Biofunctions Division, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-4-4 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan
Michitaka Shimomura, Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History & Human History, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 805-0071, Japan
Kazuo Kishimoto, Okinawa Prefectural Fisheries Research and Extention Center, Ishigaki Branch, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0453, Japan
Yasuo Shida, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
Mercy Barte-Quilantang, Institute of Fish Processing Technology, College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao, 5023 Iloilo, Philippines
Gloria Gomez-Delan, College of Fisheries Technology, Cebu Technological University - Carmen, Cebu Campus, 6005, Cebu, Philippines
Attempts were made to assess the toxicity and to analyze paralytic toxin profiles of xanthid crab Atergatis floridus collected on two reefs on the left- and the right-side, tentatively designated as site A and B, separated by the passage at the outside of Kabira Bay in Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in comparison with those of the same crabs from Camotes Island off the eastern coast of Cebu Island, Cebu Province, Philippines. They were dissected into 4 parts; carapace, viscera, appendage and muscle of appendage. Muscle of appendage was highly toxic, and the maximum toxicity of 4,641±972MU/g as paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) was recorded in the specimens from the right-side reef (site B). Toxicity assays showed that all of them were toxic irrespective of the crab-collecting years, locations, and tissues, and in addition to these, there seemed to be marked narrow regionality and individual variation of toxicity and toxin profiles. Toxicity of Ishigaki specimens was seemed to be higher than that of Camotes specimens. Toxin profiles of the viscera of A.floridus were examined by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection (HPLC-FLD) analysis. In the viscera of A.floridus from site A in June, 2007, relative abundances (mole %) of carbamoyl-N-hydroxyneosaxitoxin (hyneoSTX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), and saxitoxin (STX) were high (98%), and only 2% of gonyautoxin 2(GTX2) were contained in addition to similar amounts (3%) of decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX). Its viscera from site B in the same month possessed GTX2 (36%) and STX group (63 %) predominantly, and only 1% of GTX1 was contained in addition to similar amount (2%) of STX. Their viscera possessed STX group as the major components (89%) along with the GTX4 (11%) as the minor. On the other hand, PSP compositions of the viscera of Camotes specimen resembled to that of the viscera from the specimens on site A in Kabira Bay with higher GTX4 but lower hyneoSTX. A solitary outstanding difference of toxin profiles in both crabs was the occurrence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the Camotes specimen due to the results of HPLC-FLD and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.
Paralytic Toxin Profiles of Xanthid Crab Atergatis Floridus Collected on Reefs of Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan and Camotes Island, Cebu Province, Philippines, Science Journal of Clinical Medicine.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2014, pp. 75-81.
M. Asakawa, K. Miyazawa, H. Takayama, and T. Noguchi, “Dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense as the source of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) contained in bivalves from Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan”, Toxicon, vol.33, pp. 691-697, 1955.
M. Asakawa, H.Takayama, R.Beppu, and K.Miyazawa, “Occurrence of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) – producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, during 1993-2004 and its PSP profiles”, Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan, vol.46, pp.246-250, 2005.
R.Beppu, K.Nojima, S. Tsuruda, G.G.Delan, M.B.Quilantang, S.Taniyama, T. Sagara, S.Nishio, H.Takayama, K.Miyazawa and M.Asakawa, “Occurrence of PSP-Producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamiyavanichii in Bingo-Nada, the central coastal water of the Seto Inland Sea, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.56, pp.758-763, 2008.
T. Noguchi, S.Konosu, and Y.Hashimoto, “Identity of the crab toxin with saxitoxin”, Toxicon, vol.38, pp.763-773, 1969.
T. Yasumoto, Y. Oshima, and T.Konta, “Analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins of xanthid crabs in Okinawa”, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.47, pp. 957-959, 1981.
K.Koyama, T.Noguchi, Y.Ueda, and K.Hashimoto, “Occurrence of neosaxitoxin and other paralytic shellfish poisons in toxic crabs belonging to the family Xanthidae” , Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.47, pp.965, 1981.
K.Shiomi, H. Inaoka, H. Yamanaka, and T. Kikuchi, “Occurrence of a large amount of gonyautoxins in a xanthid crab Atergatis floridus from Chiba”, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.48, pp.1407-1410, 1982.
T.Noguchi, K.Koyama, A.Uzu, and K.Hashimoto, “Local variation of toxicity and toxin composition in a xanthid crab Atergatis floridus”, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.49, pp.1883-1886, 1983.
T.Noguchi, A.Uzu, K.Koyama, J.Maruyama, Y.Nagashima and K.Hashimoto, “Occurrence of tetrodotoxin as the major toxin in a xanthid crab Atergatis floridus”, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.49, 1887-1892., 1983.
P.K.L, Ng, D.Guinot and P.J.F.Davie, “Systema brachyurorum; Part I. An annotated checklist of extant brachyuran crabs of the world”, The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, vol.17, pp.1-286, 2008.
T. Kawabata, “Assay method for paralytic shellfish poison” In: Food Hygiene Examination Manual, (Environmental Health Bureau, Ministry of Health and welfare, ed.), Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo, vol. 2, pp. 240-244, 1978.
M.Asakawa, G. G.Delan, S. Tsuruda, M. Shimomura, Y. Shida, S. Taniyama, M. B.Quilantang and J. Shindo., “Toxicity assessment of the xanthid crab Demania cultripes from Cebu Island, Philippines”, Journal of Toxicology, Article ID 172367, 7pages, 2010.
M.Asakawa, T.Toyoshima, Y.Shida, T. Noguchi and K.Miyazawa, “Paralytic toxicity in the ribbon worm Cephalothrix species (Nemertean) adherent to cultured oysters in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan”, Toxicon, vol.38, pp.763-773, 2000.
M.Asakawa, T.Toyoshima, K.Ito, K.Bessho, C.Yamaguchi, S.Tsunetsugu, Y.Shida, H.Kajihara, S.F.Mawatari, T.Noguchi and K.Miyazawa, “Paralytic toxicity in the ribbon worm Cephalothrix species (Nemertea) in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan and the isolation of tetrodotoxin as a main component of its toxins”, Toxicon, vol41, pp.747-753, 2003.
T.Noguchi, M. Kohno, Y.Ueda and K.Hashimoto., “Isolation of gonyautoxin-2, a main component of paralytic shellfish poison from toxic scallop and its properties” , Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan, vol.5, pp.652-658, 1981.
K.Daigo, K., Uzu, A., O.Arakawa, T.Noguchi, H.Seto and K.Hashimoto, “Isolation and some properties of neosaxitoxin from a xanthid crab Zosimus aeneus “, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.51, pp.309-313. 1985.
H.Narita, T.Noguchi, J.Maruyama, Y.Ueda, K.Hashimoto, Y.Watanabe and K.Hida, “Occurrence of tetrodotoxin in a trumpet shell, “Boshubora” Charonia sauliae”, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.47, pp.935-941.1981
O.Arakawa, Y.Noguchi and Y.Onoue, “Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles of xanthid crabs Zosimus aeneus and Atergatis floridus collected on Reefs of Ishigaki Island”, Fisheries Science, vol.61, 659-662, 1995
E.E.Carumbana, A.C.Alcala and E.P.Ortega, “Toxic marine crabs in southern Negros, Philippines”, Silliman Journal, vol.23, pp.265-278, 1976.
A.C.Alcala and B.W.Halstead, “Human Fatality Due to Ingestion of the Crab Demania sp. in the Philippines”, Clinical Toxicology, vol.3, pp.609-611, 1970.
A.C.Alcala, “Recent cases of crab, cone shell, and fish intoxication of southern Negros Island, Philippines”, Toxicon, vol.21, supplement 3, pp.1-3, 1983.
R.B.Gonzales and A.C.Alcala, “Fatalities from crab poisoning on Negros Island, Philippines”, Toxicon, vol.15, pp.169-170, 1977.
K.Hashimoto and T.Noguchi, “Recent studies on paralytic shellfish poison in Japan”, Pure & Appl. Chem., vol.61, pp.7-18, 1989.
U.Raj, H.Haq, Y.Oshima and T.Yasumoto. “The occurrence of paralytic shellfish toxins in two species of xanthid crab from Suva Barrier Reef, Fiji Islands”, Toxicon, vol.21, pp.547-551, 1983.
Y.Kotaki, M.Tajiri, Y.Oshima and T.Yasumoto, “Identification of a calcareous red alga as the primary source of paralytic shellfish toxins in coral reef crabs and gastropods”, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.49, pp.283-286, 1983.
T.Yasumoto, H.Nagai, D.Yasumura, T.Michishita, T.Endo, M.Yotsu and Y.Kotaki, “Interspecies Distribution and Possible Origin of Tetrodotoxin”, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, vol.479, pp.44-51, 1986.
T.Saisho, T.Noguchi, K.Koyama, A.Uzu, T.Kikuta and K.Hashimoto, “Examination of stomach contents in xanthid crabs”, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, vol.49, pp.939-947, 1983.
O.Arakawa, T.Noguchi, Y.Shida and Y.Onoue, “Occurrence of 11-oxotetrodotoxin and 11-nortetrodotoxin-6(R)-ol in a xanthid crab Atergatis floridus collected at Kojima, Ishigaki Island”, Fisheries. Scencei, vol.60, pp.769-771, 1994.
Y.H.Tsai, D.F.Hwang, T.J.Chai and S.S.Jeng, “Occurrence of tetrodotoxinand paralytic shellfish poison in the Taiwanese crab Lophozozymus pictor”, Toxicon, vol.33, pp.1669-1673, 1995.
T.Yasumoto, D.Yasumura, Y.Ohizumi, M.Takahashi, A.C.Alcala and L.C.Alcala, “Palytoxins in two species of xanthid crabs from the Philippines”, Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, vol.50, pp.163-167, 1986.
A.C.Alcala,,L.C.Alcala, J.S.Garth, D.Yasumura and T.Yasumoto., “Human fatality due to ingestion of the crab Demania reynaudii that contained a palytoxin-like toxin”, Toxicon, vol.26, pp.105-107.
H.Oikawa, T.Fujita, M.Satomi, T.Suzuki, Y.Kotani and Y.Yano, “Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the edible shore crab Telmessus acutidens” Toxicon, vol.40, pp.1593-1599, 2002.
H.Oikawa, M.Satomi, S.Watabe and Y.Yano, “Accumulation and depuration rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the shore crab Telmessus acutidens by feeding toxic mussels under laboratory controlled conditions” , Toxicon vol.45, pp. 163-169, 2005.