Aetiology of Bacterial Pathogens from Adult Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia
Science Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 33-36
Received: May 29, 2013;
Accepted: May 28, 2014;
Published: May 30, 2014
Views 3212 Downloads 239
Belayneh Regasa, Department of Medical Microbiology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is major causes of morbidity and mortality. The etiology of CAP varies by geographic region; knowing the etiology might help for the management of the case in case of emergency and to guide treatment. So, in resource limited countries it is wise to identify the most common pathogens of CAP. The objective of this study was to determine bacterial etiology of CAP among adult patients visiting Arba Minch Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia from March 01 to June 01, 2013. Data was collected from adult patients with CAP visiting Arba Minch Hospital using face to face interviews, observation using checklist and laboratory examinations. Sputum specimens were collected and microbiological investigations were performed using standard procedures. Data was processed and analyzed with SPSS version16.0 and Excel 2007. Results: Out of 170 cases, only 68 (40%) were culture positive. One pathogen was demonstrated in 63 (92.6%) patients and 6 (7.4%) had mixed infection. The common isolates of single bacterial pathogens from sputum specimens were S. pneumoniae 20 (11.8%), S. aureus 15 (8.8%), P. aeruginosa 10 (5.8%), K. pneumoniae 8 (4.7%), E. coli 4 (2.4%), H. influenzae 4 (2.4%), P. mirabilis 1 (0.6%), and P. vulgaris 1 (0.6%). The commonest mixed bacterial isolate was K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa 2(1.2%). Conclusion: In this study, common bacteria isolated were S. pneumoniae, S. aureus and gram negative bacteria. Significant numbers of Gram negative bacteria were isolated which may indicate a shift of infection trend to Gram negative bacteria. Hence, periodic monitoring of etiologic agents with their drug resistant pattern is essential for better management of CAP and treatment strategies.
Aetiology of Bacterial Pathogens from Adult Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia, Science Journal of Clinical Medicine.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2014, pp. 33-36.
Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44: S2-S27.
Shibl A M, Memish Z A, Ibrahim E, and Kanji S S. Burden of adult community-acquired pneumonia in the Middle East/North Africa region. Reviews in Medical Microbiology. January 2010; 21(1): 11–20.
Scott J A, Hall A J, Muyodi C, Lowe B, Ross M, Chohan B, et al. Aetiology, outcome and risk factors for mortality among adults with acute pneumonia in Kenya. Lancet. 2000; 355:1225-30.
Gutiérrez F, Masiá M, Rodríguez J C, Mirete C, Soldan B, Padilla S, et al. Epidemiology of communi-ty-acquired pneumonia in adult patients at the dawn of the 21st century: a prospective study on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 11 (10):788–800.
British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults. Thorax 2001; 56 (suppl 3): IV1–IV64.
Gaillat J. Community acquired pneumonia in elderly. Rev Prat 2003; 53; 1434-41.
Egbe C A, Ndiokwere C and Omoregie R. Microbiology of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Benin City, Nigeria. Malays J Med Sci. 2011 Apr-Jun; 18(2): 27–31.
Kariuki S, Muyodi J, Mirza B, Mwatu W and Daniels J J. Antimicrobial susceptibility in community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults. East African Med J. 2003;80:4, 213-17.
Mohammed E, Muhe L, Aberra G, Asmelash T, Tesema T, Dejene A, et al. Prevalence of acute respiratory bacterial pathogens in children in Gondar. Ethiop J Heath Dev. 2004; 14(2):191-97.
Müller B, Harbarth S, Stolz D, Bingisser R, Mueller C, Leuppi J, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of clinical and laboratory parameters in community-acquired pneumonia. BMC Infect Dis. 2007; 7:10.
Vila-Corcoles A, Ochoa-Gondar O, Rodriguez-Blanco T, Raga-Luria X, Go-mez-Bertomeu F; EPIVAC Study Group. Epidemiology of com-munity-acquired pneumonia in older adults: a population-based study. Respir Med 2009; 103:309–16.
Hashemi S H, Soozanchi G, Jamal-Omidi S, Yousefi-Mashouf R, Mamani M, and Seif-Rabiei M. Bacterial etiology and antimicrobial resistance of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly and younger adults. Tropical doctor. 2010; 40: 89-91.
Egbagbe E E, Mordi R M. Aetiology of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Benin City, Nigeria. JMBR. 2006; 5(2): 22-7.
Matute A J, Brouwer W P, Hak E, Delgado E, Alonso E, and Hoepelman I M. Aetiology and resistance patterns of community-acquired pneumonia in León, Nicaragua. Int J of Antimicro Agents. 2006; 28 (5): 423-27.
Saldias F, Mardonez G M, Marchesse M, Viviani P, Farias G, Diaz A. Community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adult patients. Clinical presentation and prognostic factors. Rev Med Chil. 2002 Dec;130(12):1373-82.
Hui K P, Chin N K, Chow K, Brownlee A, Yeo T C, Kumarasinghe G, Chan T B. Prospective study of the etiology of adult community acquired bacterial pneumonia needing hospitalization in Singapore. Singapore Med J. 1993;34: 329-34.
Shah B A, Singh G, Naik M, Dhobi G N. Bacteriological and clinical profile of com-munity acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients. Lung India. 2010 (27);2: 54-7.
Fiberesima FP, Onwuchekwa AC. Community-acquired pneumonia in Port Harcourt Rivers State of Nigeria. Cent Afr J Med. 2008 Jan-Apr; 54(1-4):1-8.
Bartlett JG, Mundy LM. Communi-ty-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333:1618-24.
Okesola A O, Ige O M. Trends in Bacterial Pathogens of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2008; 50: 269-72.
De Roux A, Ewig S, Garcia E, Marcos M A, Mensa J, Lode H, and Torres A. Mixed community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 795-800
Marrie T J. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults, Dalhousie University, 2012.