Effects of a 4-week Wheat Bran Diet Combined with Weight Self-monitoring on Visceral Fat and Body Weight Among Overweight Individuals
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages: 10-15
Received: Jan. 16, 2020;
Accepted: Feb. 7, 2020;
Published: Mar. 10, 2020
Views 468 Downloads 212
Nami Yamanaka, Biological Science Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
Shinichiro Saito, Biological Science Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
Kazuya Kozuma, Health and Wellness Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
Noriko Osaki, Health and Wellness Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Health and Wellness Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
Background: Animal studies have shown that wheat bran (WB), which is rich in dietary fiber, has beneficial effects against postprandial hyperglycemia and fatty liver. The present study thus investigated the effects of a WB diet combined with body weight self-monitoring on visceral fat area (VFA) and body weight among overweight participants. Method: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in adults with a body mass index of 23 to <30 kg/m2. After screening, 44 participants were randomly allocated to either the combination or control group (n = 22/group). The combination group was instructed to consume 8 g/day of WB (1.6 g/day as arabinoxylan) with their regular diet and monitor their body weight daily for 4 weeks, whereas the control group was instructed to maintain their regular diet and monitor their body weight daily for 4 weeks. Results: Although both groups exhibited a decrease in VFA, i.e., the primary outcome measure, the combination group exhibited a greater reduction therein compared with the control group with a significant treatment by time interaction. Moreover, the combination group exhibited a significantly greater decrease in body weight, i.e., the secondary outcome measure, after 4 weeks than the control group. Conclusion: Incorporating WB into the daily diet together with weight self-monitoring therapy can be beneficial for reducing VFA and body weight.
Effects of a 4-week Wheat Bran Diet Combined with Weight Self-monitoring on Visceral Fat and Body Weight Among Overweight Individuals, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 9, No. 1,
2020, pp. 10-15.
GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators, Afshin A, Forouzanfar MH, Reitsma MB, Sur P, Estep K, et al (2017). Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. N Engl J Med 377 (1): 13-27.
Fox CS, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U, Pou KM, Maurovich-Horvat P, Liu CY, et al (2007). Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 116 (1): 39-48.
Matsuzawa Y (2014). Obesity and metabolic syndrome: the contribution of visceral fat and adiponectin. Diabetes Management 4 (4): 391-401.
Britton KA, Massaro JM, Murabito JM, Kreger BE, Hoffmann U, Fox CS (2013). Body fat distribution, incident cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol 62 (10): 921–25.
Zheng Y, Burke LE, Danford CA, Ewing LJ, Terry MA, Sereika SM (2016). Patterns of self-weighing behavior and weight change in a weight loss trial. Int J Obes 40 (9): 1392–6.
VanWormer JJ, Martinez AM, Martinson BC, Crain AL, Benson GA, Cosentino DL, et al (2009) Self-weighing promotes weight loss for obese adults. Am J Prev Med 36 (1): 70-3.
Butryn ML, Phelan S, Hill JO, Wing RR (2007). Consistent self-monitoring of weight: A key component of successful weight loss maintenance. Obesity 15 (12): 3091–6.
Stevenson L, Phillips F, O'Sullivan K, Walton J (2012). Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective. Int J Food Sci Nutr 63 (8): 1001–13.
Lu ZX, Walker KZ, Muir JG, O'Dea K (2004). Arabinoxylan fibre improves metabolic control in people with Type II diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 58 (4): 621–8.
Garcia AL, Steiniger J, Reich SC, Weickert MO, Harsch I, Machowetz A, et al (2006). Arabinoxylan fibre consumption improved glucose metabolism, but did not affect serum adipokines in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Horm Metab Res 38 (11): 761–6.
Lu ZX, Walker KZ, Muir JG, Mascara T, O'Dea K (2000). Arabinoxylan fiber, a byproduct of wheat flour processing, reduces the postprandial glucose response in normoglycemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 71 (5): 1123–8.
Hartvigsen ML, Lærke HN, Overgaard A, Holst JJ, Bach Knudsen KE, Hermansen K (2014). Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised study. Eur J Clin Nutr 68 (5): 567–74.
Numan Ahmad M, Rabah Takruri H (2015). The effect of dietary wheat bran on sucrose-induced changes of serum glucose and lipids in rats. Nutr Hosp 32 (4): 1636–44.
Han S, Jiao J, Zhang W, Xu J, Wan Z, Zhang W, et al (2015). Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Sci Rep 5: 15256.
Jensen MK, Koh-Banerjee P, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Gronbaek M, et al (2004). Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 80 (6): 1492–9.
He M, van Dam RM, Rimm E, Hu FB, Qi L (2010). Whole-grain, cereal fiber, bran, and germ intake and the risks of all-cause and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 121 (20): 2162–8.
Neyrinck AM, Possemiers S, Druart C, Van de Wiele T, De Backer F, Cani PD, et al (2011). Prebiotic effects of wheat arabinoxylan related to the increase in bifidobacteria, Roseburia and Bacteroides/Prevotella in diet-induced obese mice. PLoS One 6 (6): e20944.
Neyrinck AM, Van Hée VF, Piront N, De Backer F, Toussaint O, Cani PD, et al (2012). Wheat-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides with prebiotic effect increase satietogenic gut peptides and reduce metabolic endotoxemia in diet-induced obese mice. Nutr Diabetes 2: e28.
Ryo M, Maeda K, Onda T, Katashima M, Okumiya A, Nishida M, et al (2005). A new simple method for the measurement of visceral fat accumulation by bioelectrical impedance. Diabetes Care 28 (2): 451–3.
Hosoda Y, Okahara F, Mori T, Deguchi J, Ota N, Osaki N, et al (2017). Dietary steamed wheat bran increases postprandial fat oxidation in association with a reduced blood glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in mice. Food Nutr Res 23; 61 (1): 1361778.
Seino Y, Fukushima M, Yabe D (2010). GIP and GLP-1, the two incretin hormones: Similarities and differences. J Diabetes Investig. 2010 Apr 22; 1 (1-2): 8–23.
Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI (2006). Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 21; 444 (7122): 1022–3.
Duncan SH, Lobley GE, Holtrop G, Ince J, Johnstone AM, Louis P, et al (2008). Human colonic microbiota associated with diet, obesity and weight loss. Int J Obes (Lond) 32 (11): 1720–4.
Anson NM, Havenaar R, Vaes W, Coulier L, Venema K, Selinheimo E, et al. (2011). Effect of bioprocessing of wheat bran in wholemeal wheat breads on the colonic SCFA production in vitro and postprandial plasma concentrations in men. Food Chem 15; 128 (2): 404–9.
Gao Z, Yin J, Zhang J, Ward RE, Martin RJ, Lefevre M, et al (2009) Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. Diabetes 58 (7): 1509–17.