International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 3, May 2017, Pages: 144-148
Received: Mar. 21, 2017;
Accepted: Apr. 10, 2017;
Published: May 25, 2017
Views 2620 Downloads 128
Benson Oloya, Department of Chemistry, Muni University, Arua, Uganda
Christopher Adaku, Department of Chemistry, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
Emmanuel Ntambi, Department of Chemistry, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
Morgan Andama, Department of Biology, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
Both improved and local cassava varieties are widely grown and also, consumed in Zombo district as well as West Nile Sub region and Uganda as a whole. However, all cassava varieties contain cyanogenic glycosides which are toxic, although the amounts in each cultivar may vary considerably. Consumption of such toxins in sufficient quantities poses a health risk since they can cause acute cyanide poisoning and death in humans and animals. As such, information concerning the cyanogenic glycosides content in cassava cultivars is indispensable in averting health risks linked with cassava consumption. In this study, the cyanogenic content of the most common local cassava varieties (Bisimwenge, Nyar-anderiano, Nya-matia, Nya-pamitu, Nya-papoga and Nyar-udota) grown in Zombo district and six improved cassava varieties (NASE 3, NASE 9, NASE 14, NASE 19, TME 14 and TME 204) were investigated. Generally, the improved cassava varieties revealed lower levels (mean value was 108.75 mg/kg) of cyanogens than the local varieties (mean value was 201.65 mg/kg). The concentrations of the cyanogen in all the cultivars investigated were far above the FAO/WHO recommended value (<10 mg/kg). Hence, adequate detoxification and reduced frequency of consumption of these cassava cultivars are necessary in order to limit the ingestion of toxic levels of cyanide.
Cyanogenic Potential of Selected Cassava Varieties in Zombo District, Uganda, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2017, pp. 144-148.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). FAO, “Food balance sheet,” FAO, Rome, 2009a. Accessed at://faostat.fao.org/site/368/default.aspx#.
Zombo District Socio-Economic Report, Volume II. Sub-county Development Programme: Implementation of The Community Information System (CIS), Uganda Bureau of Statistics, P. O Box 7186 Kampala Website: www.ubos.org, October 2012.
G. W. Otim-Nape, A. Bua, J. M. Thresh, Y. Baguma, S. Ogwal, G. Ssemakula, G. Acola, B. Byabakama, J. Colvin, R. J. Cooter, and A. Martin. 2000. The Current Pandemic of Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease in East Africa and its Control. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK.
A. P. Cardoso, E. Mirione, M. Ernesto, F. Massaza, J. Cliff, M. R. Haque, and J. H Bradbury, “Processing of cassava roots to remove cyanogens,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18, 451–460, 2005.
J. H. Bradbury, and W. D. Holloway, “Chemistry of Tropical Root Crops: Signiﬁcance for Nutrition and Agriculture in the Paciﬁc,” Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Monograph No. 6, Canberra, Australia, 1988.
G. Padmaja, “Cyanide detoxification in cassava for food and feed uses,” Critical Reviews Food Science Nutrition, 35:299–339, 1995.
M. Andama, and J. B. Lejju, “Potential of Fermentation in Detoxifying Toxic Cassava Root Tubers,” Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, A 2, 1182-1188, 2012.
B. Oloya, C. Adaku, E. Ntambi, and M. Andama, “Detoxification of Nyar-Udota Cassava Variety in Zombo District by Fermentation,” International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2017, pp. 118-121. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20170603.11.
F. Delange, L. O. Ekpechi, and H. Rosling, “Cassava cyanogenesis and iodine deﬁciency disorders,” Acta Horticulture, 375, 289–293, 1994.
M. Ernesto, A. P. Cardoso, D. Nicala, E. Mirione, F. Massaza, J. Cliff, M. R. Haque and J. Bradbury, “Persistent konzo and cyanide toxicity from cassava in Northern Mozambique,” Acta Tropica, 82:357-362, 2002.
B. O. Osuntokun, “Chronic cyanide intoxication of dietary origin and a degenerative neuropathy in Nigerians,” Acta Horticulturae, 375, 311–321, 1994.
W. P. Howlett, “Konzo; a new human disease entity,” Acta Horticulturae, 375, 323–329, 1994.
A. O. Onabolu, O. S. A. Oluwole, M. Bokanga, and H. Rosling, “Ecological variation of intake of cassava food and dietary cyanide load in Nigerian communities,” Public Health Nutrition, 4, 871–876, 2001.
A. Akintonwa, O. Tunwashe, and A. Onifade, “Fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning attributed to cassava–based meal,” Acta Horticulturae, 375, 285–288, 1994.
R. Best, and T. R. Hargrove, “Cassava: The latest facts about an ancient crop,” International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, Cali, Colombia. 1993.
G. M. O’Brien, C. C. Wheatley, C. Iglesias, and N. H. Poulter, “Evaluation, modification, and comparison of two rapid assays for cyanogens in cassava,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 65, 391-399, 1994.
M. R. Grace, “Elaboration of cassava. FAO Collection: Plant Protection and Protection,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp 1-162, 1977.
N. B. Okigbo, “Nutritional implications of projects giving high priority to the production of staples of low nutritive quality. The case of cassava in the humid tropics of West Africa,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2(4). United Nations University, Tokyo, 1980.
A. Melinfonwu, B. James, K. Achou, S. Weise, E. Awah, and B. Gbaguidi, “Weed Control in Cassava Farms,” IPM Field Guide for Extension Agent, 2002.
O. S. A. Oluwole, A. O. Onabolu, K. Mtunda, and N. Mlingi, “ARTICLE IN PRESS Characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties in Nigeria and Tanzania, and farmers’ perception of toxicity of cassava,” vol. 20, pp. 559–567, 2007.
Sriroth, K, Santisopasri, V., Petchalanuwat, C., Piyachomkwan, K., Kurotjanawon, K., & Oates, C. (1999), “Cassava Starch Granule Structure- Functional Properties: Influence of Time and Condition at Harvest on Four Varieties of Cassava Starch’’, Carbohydrate Polymers, 38 (2), 161 – 170.
M. Ngendahayo, and A. G. O. Dixon, “Effect of varying stages of harvest on tuber yield, dry matter, starch and harvest index of cassava in two ecological zones in Nigeria,” In: root crops in 21st century. Proceedings of the 7th Triennial Symposium of the ISTRC-AB (M. O. Akoroda and J. M. Ngeve Eds). Cotonou, Benin, pp 661-667, 1998.
E. U. Odigboh, ‘’A Cassava Peeling Machine: Development, Design and Construction’’, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 21, 361-369, 1976.
FAO, “Processing and utilization of Root and Tuber Crops,” FIAT PANIS; Rome, 2000.
O. A. Emmanuel, A. Clement, S. B. Agnes, L. Chiwona Karltun, and B. N. Drinah, “Chemical composition and cyanogenic potential of traditional and high yielding CMD resistant cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties” International Food Research Journal 19(1): 175-181, 2012.
M. A. Santana, V. Vásquez, J. Matehus, and R. R. Aldao. "Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content." Plant Physiology 129, no. 4 (2002): 1686-694.
D. Siritunga, and R. T Sayre, “Generation of cyanogens free transgenic cassava,” Planta 217: 367–73, 2003.
FAO/WHO. 1991. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme. In: Codex Alimentarius Commission XII (suppl. 4). Rome, Italy: FAO.
P. Arguedas and R. D. Cooke, “Residual Cyanide Concentration During the Extraction of Cassava Starch,” Food Technol., vol. 17, pp. 251–261, 1982.
D. L. Dufour, “Cyanide Contents of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae) Cultivars Used by Tukanoan Indians in North-west Amazonia,” Economic Botany, 42 (2): 255-266, 1988.
G. G. Bolhuis, “The toxicity of cassava roots”. Journal of Agriculture and Science, 2:176-185, 1954.
H. Rosling, “Cassava toxicity and food security”. Uppsala, Sweden, Tryclc Kontakt, 40 p. 1987.
R. Rukiya, “Détermination quantitative du cyanure dans le manioc (variétés F100, 02864, 30085/28, 30344/6 Mpelolongi)”. Inédit. Mémoire. Faculté des sciences, Université de Kinshasa. 1988.
B. Nambisan, “Strategies for elimination of cyanogens from cassava for reducing toxicity and improving food safety”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49: 690–693, 2011.
G. H. de Bruijn, “The cyanogenic character of cassava (Manihot esculenta)”. In B Nestel, R MacIntyre, eds, Chronic Cassava Toxicity: Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Workshop, January 29–30, 1973, London. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, pp 43–48, 1973.
M. Bokanga, I. J. Ekanayake, A. G. O. Dixon, M. C. M. Porto, “Genotype-environment interactions for cyanogenic potential in cassava”. Acta Horticulture 375: 131–139, 1994.