Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profile of Shea Butter and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil, a Suitable Blend in Bakery Fat Production
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 3, May 2017, Pages: 122-128
Received: Feb. 27, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 11, 2017; Published: Mar. 28, 2017
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Authors
Chibor Bariwere Samuel, Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Kiin-Kabari David Barine, Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Eke-Ejiofor Joy, Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
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Abstract
Shea nuts (Vitellaria paradoxa) were cracked and sorted. Fluted pumpkin seeds (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) were dehulled and washed. The Shea kernel and Telfairia cotyledons were oven dried (60°C, 24h) separately in a hot air oven, milled into flour and oil extracted. Crude palm oil extracted from the palm fruit was used as control. The oil samples were analyzed for chemical composition, physical properties, and fatty acid profile. Shea nut oil (Shea butter) gave 58.00% ether extract, 0.88% free fatty acids, 1.7mgKOH/g acid value, 1.03mEqO2/kg peroxide value, 70.00g/100g iodine value, 227.94mgKOH/g saponification value, 0.95% Unsaponifiable matter, and 226.17mgKOH/g ester value. Fluted pumpkin seed oil gave 52.60% ether extract, 0.71% free fatty acids, 1.41mgKOH/g acid value, 1.17mEqO2/kg peroxide value, 119.67g/100g iodine value, 179.04mgKOH/g saponification value, 0.57% Unsaponifiable matter, and 177.63mgKOH/g ester value. The iodine value of Shea butter and Telfairia seed oil were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the control which gave 57.33g/100g iodine value. Shea butter also gave 1.461 refractive index, 0.927g/ml density, 36.57°C slip melting point, 211.00°C smoke point, 83.92cSt kinematic viscosity, and 4red and 20yellow lovibond colour. Fluted pumpkin seed oil gave 1.463 refractive index, 0.903g/ml density, 18.60°C slip melting point, 244.50°C smoke point, 34.98cSt kinematic viscosity, and 5red and 20yellow lovibond colour. Shea butter gave 50.6% total saturated fatty acids, and 49.1% total unsaturated fatty acids, with stearic (45.8%) and oleic (42.5%) as the predominant saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids respectively. Fluted pumpkin seed oil gave 18.4% total saturated fatty acids, and 80.2% total unsaturated fatty acids, with palmitic (17.5%) and linoleic (62.4%) as the predominant saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids respectively. Shea butter, with a melting point of 36.57°C will provide a good solid base for bakery fat production, while Telfairia seed oil with iodine value of 119.33(g/100g) will provide healthy fatty acids and the needed plasticity. A blend of Shea butter and fluted pumpkin seed oil in bakery fat production has potential to improve the nutritional and functional properties of the end products.
Keywords
Shea Butter, Fluted Pumpkin, Physicochemical, Fatty Acid Profile, Bakery Fat
To cite this article
Chibor Bariwere Samuel, Kiin-Kabari David Barine, Eke-Ejiofor Joy, Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profile of Shea Butter and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil, a Suitable Blend in Bakery Fat Production, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2017, pp. 122-128. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20170603.12
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Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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