Problem with Dietary Habits in Community-Dwelling Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury in Japan: A Qualitative Study
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages: 39-46
Received: Jan. 4, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 17, 2016; Published: Jan. 29, 2016
Views 3219      Downloads 80
Kikuko Hata, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
Wakako Tatsuta, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
Takayo Inayama, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
Article Tools
Follow on us
The purpose of this study was to develop a model that details “problems with dietary habits” for community-dwelling individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). We mailed questionnaires to 2,731 registered members of Spinal Injuries Japan that asked the following question: “Is there any problem with your diet, meal, and food? Feel free to write anything.” The answer paper had free space in which individuals could freely write their problems with diet, meal, and food. Ultimately, responses from 260 individuals who answered the open-ended question were analyzed. We categorized responses using content analysis. The categories were classified based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. A total of 337 items related to “problems with dietary habits” as record units. The record units were classified into seven categories. Five of the seven categories have utility for the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of dietary habits: health/nutritional status, dietary behavior, healthy behavior, reinforcing, and enabling. The two categories not included in the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of dietary habits were excretion and other problems. “Problems with dietary habits” were classified and five of the seven categories form a framework applicable to the PRECEDE-PROCEED model.
Spinal Cord Injury, Dietary Habits, Problem, Open-Ended Question, PRECEDE-PROCEED Model
To cite this article
Kikuko Hata, Wakako Tatsuta, Takayo Inayama, Problem with Dietary Habits in Community-Dwelling Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury in Japan: A Qualitative Study, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2016, pp. 39-46. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160501.16
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Garshick E, Kelley A, Cohen SA, Garrison A, Tun CG, Gagnon D, Brown R. A prospective assessment of mortality in chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2005; 43: 408-416.
De Groot S, Post MW, Snoek GJ, Schuitemaker M, van der Woude LH. Longitudinal association between lifestyle and coronary heart disease risk factors among individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2013; 51: 314-318.
Reichard A, Stolzle H, Fox MH. Health disparities among adults with physical disabilities or cognitive limitations compared to individuals with no disabilities in the United States. Disabil Health J 2011; 4: 59-67.
Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 82-91.
Rimmer JH, Wang E, Pellegrini CA, Lullo C, Gerber BS. Telehealth weight management intervention for adults with physical disabilities: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2013; 92: 1084-1094.
Arai H., Kojima H., Yamazaki Y. An exploratory study to prevent metabolic syndrome for individuals with intellectual disabilities. JSHEP 2011; 19: 15-25. (in Japanese). (accessed October 2015).
Green LW, Kreuter MW. Health Program Planning: an Educational and Ecological Approach, 4th ed. Boston: Mc Graw Hill; 2005.
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2012) A Basic Direction for Comprehensive Implementation of National Health Promotion. (accessed September 2015).
Tsunoda N, Inayama T, Hata K, Oka J. Key dietary behavioral and environmental factors mediating dietary variety among Japanese adults with spinal cord injury. Int J Nutr Food Sci 2015; 4: 111-117.
Tsunoda N, Inayama T, Hata K, Oka J. Vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are key items mediating adequate dietary intake for Japanese adults with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2015; 53: 786-790.
Berelson B. Content analysis in communication research. Glencoe: Ill, Free Press; 1952.
Bryman A. Social research methods, 4th edn. Oxford University Press; 2012.
Liamputtong P, Serry T. Research methods in health 2nd edn. Oxford University Press; 2013.
Scott WA. Reliability of content analysis: the case of nominal scale coding. Public Opin Q 1995; 19: 321-325.
Shimokariya M, Yatsushiro R. Problems in home care for patients with spinal cord injuries during the 10 years following discharge. JJOMT 2011; 59: 137-142. (in Japanese). (accessed October 2015).
Funashima N. Challenge to a qualitative study, 2nd ed. Tokyo: IGAKU-SHOIN; 2007. (in Japanese).
Aoyagi N, Takahashi H, Hara Y, Shibazaki K, Liu M, Chino N. Factors associated with handicaps of spinal cord injured patients: Pilot Study of the CHART. Jpn J Rehabil Med 1999; 36: 599-606. (in Japanese). (accessed October 2015).
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Overview of Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015). (accessed October 2015).
Yoshiike N, Hayashi F, Takemi Y, Mizoguchi K, Seino F. A new food guide in Japan: the Japanese food guide Spinning Top. Nutr Rev 2007; 65: 149-154.
Lieberman J, Goff D Jr, Hammond F, Schreiner P, Norton HJ, Dulin M, Zhou X, Steffen L. Dietary intake and adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans among individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: A pilot study. J Spinal Cord Med 2014; 37: 751-757.
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan 2013. (accessed October 2015).
US Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s call to action to improve the health and wellness of persons with disabilities: Calling you to action. Office of the Surgeon General, Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2005.
Marmot MG, Rose G, Shipley MJ, Thomas BJ. Alcohol and mortality: A U-shaped curve. Lancet 1981; 1: 580-583.
Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, Halpern DJ, Viera A, Crotty K, et al. Health literacy interventions and outcomes: An updated systematic review. Evid Rep Technol Assess 2011; (199): 1-941.
Cabinet Office Japan. Annual Report on Government Measures for Persons with Disabilities (Summary) 2014: Chapter 5 Building Foundations of Independence toward Social Participation. (accessed October 2015).
Kagamimori S, Gaina A, Nasermoaddeli A. Socioeconomic status and health in the Japanese population. Soc Sci Med 2009; 68: 2152-2160.
Hata K, Inayama T, Matsushita M, Shinoda S. The combined associations of social participation and support with self-rated health and dietary satisfaction in men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2015; doi: 10.1038/sc.2015.166.
Mithen J, Aitken Z, Ziersch A, Kavanagh AM. Inequalities in social capital and health between people with and without disabilities. Soc Sci Med. 2015; 126: 26-35.
World Health Organization. How to use the ICF: A practical manual for using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Exposure draft for comment. (accessed October 2015).
World Health Organization, TDR empowerment function: empowerment: annual report 2008. (accessed October 2015).
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186