Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice and Related Determinants Among Maternal in Gondar, Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages: 25-30
Received: Dec. 25, 2015;
Accepted: Jan. 8, 2016;
Published: Jan. 27, 2016
Views 3943 Downloads 155
Muluken Asfaw Admasu, Department of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and Nutrition, Università Della Calabria, Cosenza, Italy
Erika Cione, Department of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and Nutrition, Università Della Calabria, Cosenza, Italy
Breastfeeding has always been the ideal feeding practice for infants because of that it is one of the components of Primary Health Care and considered as natural practices in Ethiopia even though it remains a challenging due to lack of knowledge of mothers. The objective of this study was to assess the breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, practice and related Determinants among Maternal in Gondar; Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional community based study was carried out from September to December, 2015 in Gondar City. A total of 543 women who had a child aged less than 24 months from five different villages. The sample size determination was calculated using the single proportion formula. Households that have lactating mothers who had child less than 24 months were selected by multistage random sampling technique. The questionnaire was distributed according to the proportion of the selected village population Data were analyzed using SPSS v21. Binary logistic regressions were used to see the strength of association between independent and dependent variables using odds ratios and 95% of confidence intervals. Finally a multivariate logistic regression analysis was made to identify the predictors of maternal knowledge about optimal breastfeeding practices. Full breastfeeding was reported by 59.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 31.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 12.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 7–12 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 96% CI 1.60, 6.98), and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to repetition full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 97% CI 1.17, 4.78). The women had a positive attitude but short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. This study showed that a majority of mothers has known the importance of Exclusive Breast Feeding and have good attitude, knowledge in order that strongly agree that Exclusive Breast Feeding is advantageous for infant aged less than six months. Though, poor practice to exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months postpartum among urban mothers. It is speculated health care providers and decision makers should be comprehensively addressed on adverse work related issues to improve exclusively breast feeding practices in the study community.
Muluken Asfaw Admasu,
Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice and Related Determinants Among Maternal in Gondar, Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2016, pp. 25-30.
Chua S, Arulkumaran S, Lim I, Selamat N, Ratnam SS. Influence of breastfeeding and nipple stimulation on postpartum uterine activity. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994 Sep; 101 (9): 804-5.
Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA. Maternal weight-loss patterns duringn prolonged lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 Aug; 58 (2): 162-6.
Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Lancet. 2002 Jul 20; 360 (9328): 187-95.
Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB. Lactation and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Int J Epidemiol. 1993 Apr; 22 (2): 192-7.
Ball TM, Bennett DM. The Economic Impact of Breastfeeding. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2001; 48 (1): 253-62.
World Health Organization, UNICEF. Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003 [cited 2010 02/02]; Available http://www.unicef.org/progressforchildren/2007n6/index_41511.htm.
WHO. Indicators for assessing breastfeeding practices. Geneva: World Health Organization1991 Contract No.: (WHO/CDD/SER/91.14).
Binns CW, Fraser ML, Lee AH, Scott J. Defining exclusive breastfeeding in Australia. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009 Apr; 45(4): 174-80.
World Health Organization. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Washinton D. C., USA: World Health Organization2008.
National Program of Action for Child Development in Ethiopia (1991-2000).
National Program of Action for Child Development in Ethiopia (2001-2010). 81 Ministry of health of the people's Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia; 2001.
Family Health Department National guideline on the prevention of Mother -to – child Transmission of HIV in Ethiopia, Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 2001.
Family Health Department National Strategy for infant & young child feeding Federal ministry of health, Ethiopia, April 2004.
Nduati R., et al. Effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA March 1 2000; 283(9): 1167-1174.
UNAIDS. WHO, UNICEF, UNAIDS Statement on current status of WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF Policy guidelines September 1999. Geneva.
Kesela T., Kebede D. pattern of feeding of infants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 1996; 10 (1): 57-65.
Rogers, E. M. Communication strategies for Family Planning, Free press, USA. 1973
Piotrow etal. Behavior change Model: knowledge Approval, Intention, practice and Advocacy in communication framework, JHU. Ccp. 1997
CSA. Population and housing census of Ethiopia. Result for Amhara Region, November 1998 Vol. 2: 1–328.
Asefa M., Drewette R., Hewison J. An Ethiopian birth cohort study: the study design, Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2002; 16 (special Issue): p. 21–36.
Tekle Silassie B. K. The status of breast feeding among mothers of children aged less than two years and implications for the occurrence of acute diarrhea, Jimma, Southwest of Ethiopia. (Unpublished thesis submitted to Department of Community Health, AAU) 2002.
UNICEF. The States of the World’s Children, Focus on Nutrition, Oxford University Press, 1998: p. 28.
Semprini AE et al. 1995. The incidence of complications after cesarean section in 156 women. AIDS 9: 913 917.
Dewey KG, Brown KH. Update on Technical Issues Concerning Complementary Feeding of Young Children in Developing Countries and Implications for Intervention Programs. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Washington, DC, USA: Pan American Health Organization. 2003: 24 (1): 5–28.
Health System - Center for National Health Development in Ethiopia http://cnhde.ei.columbia.edu/healthsystem/
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Census Commission: Summary and statistical report of the 2007 population and housing census. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2008.
54th World Health Assembly: Infant and Young Child Nutrition (Resolution WHA54.2). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.
Ulak M, Chandyo RK, Mellander L, Shrestha PS, Strand TA: Infant feeding practices in Bhaktapur, Nepal: a cross-sectional, health facility based sur-vey. Int Breastfeed J 2012, 7: 1.
Lauer JA, Betrán AP, Victora CG, de Onís M, Barros AJD: Breast feeding patterns and exposure to suboptimal breastfeeding among children in developing countries: review and analysis of national.