Chemical and Toxicological Evaluation of Some Snacks Consumed by Children in Egypt
Snacks are commonly consumed by the most of children, that as fast foods and drinks, between main meals. Such fast foods being consumed do not usually provide a balanced meal, but they can be a useful source of some nutrients especially extra energy. The safety of snacks dietary components, including flavors and colors, is currently a subject of great interest since some of which are proved to be animal toxins and/or carcinogens. Therefore, the present work was carried out to study the chemical and toxicological evaluation of some snacks consumed by children in Egypt. Potato chips, puff snacks and fatty cake samples were purchased within about three months, transported to the laboratory, ground or homogenized before they were freeze-dried to ensure equal moisture content then used for alcohol extracts preparation. Also, extracts were prepared from potato chips samples made in lab for comparative study. Liver cells, isolated from Bolti fish and established in primary culture, were treated with a concentration of 1x10-1 to 1x10-7 % snacks extracts for 48 hr. Cytotoxicity in primary cultures was evaluated by changes in lysosomes activity, mitochondrial activity and cell membrane integrity over a range of each extract concentrations. The highest adverse cytotoxic effects were recorded for puff snacks followed by fatty cake and potato chips, respectively. Very little effects induced in lab made potato chips extracts. The dose-response curves with the cytotoxicity assays corresponded well to those of adverse biochemical effects including cells growth assay and protease activity. Properties of oil extracted from tested snacks indicated that lab made potato chips extracts possessed the best quality values for AV (mg KOH/100 g oil), FFA (% as oleic acid), PV (meg/kg oil), IN (gI2) and MDA content were 0.62, 0.98, 6.85, 112.36 and 1.27 respectively, while as oil extracted from puff snacks registered the lowest quality values were 1.29, 2.10, 18.20, 90.24 and 3.68 respectively. For all assays, the sequence of potencies of the tested extracts was in the order of puff snacks > fatty cake > potato chips > lab made potato chips. Our results indicate that these extracts may include chemicals which act at various sites on the liver cells to induce different cytotoxic and biochemical adverse effects.
Chemical and Toxicological Evaluation of Some Snacks Consumed by Children in Egypt, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2015, pp. 493-502.
McCullough, M. L; Diane F.; Meir J.; Edward L.; Eric B.; Frank B.; Donna S.; David J., Graham A. and Walter C. (2002): Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Am J Clin Nutr, 76:1261–71.
WCRFI (2014): World Cancer Research Fund International and the NCD Alliance. The link between food, nutrition, diet and non-communicable diseases, 2nd edition October 2014, London WC1B 3HH.
Badr, A. A. (2001): Biochemical and histological studies on the effect of some flavors added to baby foods and snacks in rats. Ph.D. thesis, Dept of food science. Faculty of Home economics: Minoufiya University.
Food Intolerance and Food Aversion (1984): A Joint Report of the Royal College of Physicians and the British Nutrition Foundation. J Royal College of Physicians of London, Vol: 18, No: 2.
Wood, R.; Foster, L.; Damant, A. and Key, P. (2004): Analytical methods for food additives. Carbohydrate Polym. 58, 483–485.
Durlach J. (1980): Clinical aspects of chronic magnesium deficiency. In: Magnesium in Health, Ed; MS Seeling, Spectrum Publications, New York.
Connors, C.K. and Blouin, A.G. (1983): Nutritional effects on behavior of children. J Psychiatr Res, 17:193-201.
Lozoff, B. and Brittenham, G.H. (1986): Behavioral aspects of iron deficiency. Prog Hematol, 14:23-53.
Bryce-Smith D. (1986): Environmental and chemical influences on behavior and mentation. (John Jeyes Lecture) Chem Soc Rev, 15:93-123.
[Ward, N.I.; Soulsbury, K.A.; Zeittel, V.H. and et al. (1990): The influence of the chemical additive tartazine on the zinc status of hyperactive children - A double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Nutr Med, 1: 51-57.
Smith, J.M. (1991): Adverse reactions to food and drug additives. European J Clin Nutr, 45, 17-21.
Ertugrul, N. (1998): Food additives regulations and health problems about upper limit of some food additives, M.S. Thesis, Istanbul University, Turkey.
Aljaff, P; Banaz O. R. and Trifa A. O. (2013): A Comparison between Natural and Synthetic Food Flavoring Extracts Using Infrared Spectra and Optical Activity. Journal of Applied Physics, 5(3): 1-6.
Feingold, B.F. (1973): Food additives and child development. Hospital Practice, 21, 11-12, 17-18.
Wynn, M. and Wynn, A. (1981): The prevention of handicap of early pregnancy origin: Some evidence for the value of good health before conception. Foundation for Education and Research in Childbearing 9 View Road, London N6 4DJ.
Miller, M. (1985): Danger Additives at Work, London Food Commission, London.
Sasaki, Y.F.; Kawaguchi, S.; Kamaya, A.; Ohshita, M.; Kabasawa, K.; Iwama, K.; Taniguchi, K. and Tsuda, S. (2002): The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat. Res. 519, 103–119.
Ahmed, S. K. (2009): Biological evaluation of some food additives distributed in Egyptian local markets in vitro. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.
Gordon,M.H. and Kourimska,L.(1995): The effect of antioxidant on changes in oils during heating and deep frying.J.Sci.Food Agric.68:347-353.
A.O.A.C. (1995). "Official Methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists" XX th ed. Published by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A
Pearson, D. (1970): The chemical analysis of food.National college of food technology, University of Reading, Weybridge, Edit by Surry, T. and Churchill, A., Ocean fishes, Fish industry, 43, (6): 57 - 59.
Woyewoda, A.D.; Shaw, S.J. Ke, P.J. and Burns, B.G. (1986): Recommended laboratory methods for assessment of fish quality.Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, No. 1448: 65 - 72.
Elhassaneen, Y. A. (1996): Biochemical and technological studies on pollution of fish with pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Ph.D., Dept. of Agric. Chemistry, Fac. of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Borenfreund, E. and Puerner, J.A. (1984). A simple quantitative procedure using monolayer cultures for cytotoxicity assays (HTD/NR-90). J. of Tissue Culture Methods, 9: 1.
Borenfreund, E.; Babich, H. and Martin-Alguachi, N. (1988): Comparisons of two in vitro cytotoxicity assays: The neutral red (NR) and Tetrazolium (MTT) tests. Toxicology in Vitro 2, 1–6.
Saotome, K.; Morita, H. and Umeda, M. (1989): Cytotoxicity test with simplified crystal violet staining method using microtitre plates and its applicability to injection drugs. Toxicol. in vitro, 3: 317-321.
Babich, H. and E. Borenfreund (1987): In vitro cytotoxicity of organic pollutants to bluegill sunfish (BF-2) cells. Envir. Res. 42:299-273.
Rindermecitt, H.; Geokas, M.C.; Silverman, P. and Haverback, B.J. (1968): A new ultrasensitive method for the determination of proteolytic activity. Clin. Chim. Acta, 21:197-203.
Smith, O. (1957): Potatoes and N.P.C.I. Research. Natl. Potato Chip Inst., Proc. Prod. and Tech. Div. Meetings, pp. 3-5.
Wilson, L.W. (1970). Investigation of the light- struck- flavor of potato chips. Diss. Abst., 31 (11): 6681.
Van Der Hide, R. F., and Van Der Veen, J. (1977). Problem related to deep fat frying. Veoding, 38: 406 - 417.
Elhassaneen, Y.E; H. A. El-Fadaly; and N.E. Dewan (2003): Bioremoval of toxic substances from edible oils as affected by deep-fat frying process. Pakistan J. of Biological Science, 6 (24): 1979 - 1990.
Tawfik, S.S.; Fahim, H.I.; Ashour, B.M.; Elhassaneen, Y.A; and Abou Seif, H.S. (2003): Effect of fat quality and frying on growth and some Biochemical aspects in rats. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 49 (97): 113 – 140.
Gray, J. I. and Morton, D.I. (1981): Some toxic compounds produced in food by cooking and processing: A review. J. Human Nutr., 35: 5-23.
Elhassaneen A. Yousif ; and Tawfik, L.M. (1998). "The presence of some carcinogens in human foods distributed in Egyptian local markets. J. of Home Economics, 8 (3): 23 - 38. [ISSN 1110-2578]
Shamberger, R. J.; Andreone, T. L. and Willis, C. E. (1974): Antioxidants and cancer. IV. Malonaldehyde has initiating activity as a carcinogen. J. Natr. Cancer Inst. 53: 1771.
Mukai, F. H. and Goldstein, B. D. (1976): Mutagenicity of malonaldehyde, a decomposition product of peroxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids. Science, 191: 868.
Shamberger, R.J.; Corlett, C.L.; Beaman, K.D. and Kasten, B.L. (1979): Antioxidants reduce the mutagenic effect of malonaldehyde and (-propiolactione. Mutat. Res. 66: 349.
Elhassaneen Y. A. (1999): "Toxicological and biochemical effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds produced in fish by cooking and processing”. 6 th Arabic Conference on Food Science and Technology, 16 – 18 th march, Egyptian Society of Food Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt, pp. 249 – 270.
Elhassaneen, Y. A. (2002): New and quickly biological method for detection the potential chemical toxins and/or carcinogens in foods. Proceedings of 2nd scientific Conference on Foodborne Contamination and Egyptian’s Health (24 – 24 April), Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, pp 371-394.
El-Saadany, M.A. (2001): The effect of dietary phytochemicals on the prevention of liver cancer initiation induced by some chemical carcinogenesis. M.Sc. Thesis, Fac. of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.
Elhassaneen, Y. A. and Yahya A. Abd Elhady (2014): Onion peel powder alleviate acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity in liver cell culture. Life Sci J ., 11(7):381-388.
North-Root, H.; Yackovitch, F.; Demetrulias, J.; Gacula, M. and Heinz, J.E. (1982): Evaluation of an in vitro cell toxicity using rabbit corneal cells to predict the eye-irritation potential of surfactants. Toxicology Letters 14, 107–214.
Borenfreund, E. and Puerner, J.A. (1985): Toxicity determined in vitro by morphological alterations and neutral red absorption. Toxicology Letters 24, 119–124.
Valentin, I.; Lhuguenot, J.C. and Chagnon, M.C. (2000): Uridine uptake inhibition as a cytotoxicity test for a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells): comparison with the neutral red assay. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 794, 373–380.
Kocan, R.M.; K.M. Sabo and M.L. Landolt (1985): Cytoyoxicity/genotoxicity: the application of cell culture techniques to the measurement of marine sediment pollution. Aquatic Toxicology, 6:165-177.
Balls, M. and Bridges, J.W. (1984): The FRAME research program on in vitro toxicology. In: Goldberg, A.M. (Ed.), Acute Toxicology Testing: Alternatives Approaches. Mary Ann Liebert, New York, pp. 61–80.
Dierickx, P.J. (1989): Cytotoxicity testing of 114 compounds by the determination of the protein content in HepG2 cell cultures. Toxicology in Vitro 3, 189–193.
Elhassaneen, Y. A.; Khater, O.M.; Tawfeek, L.M. and Sanad, M. (1997): In vitro biochemical studies on pollution of fish with paper industry effluents. Second Egyptian Conference of Home Economics (25-26 May), Faculty of Home Economics, Minufiya University, Egypt, pp. 183 – 196.
Laughlin, R.B.; J. Ng and H.E. Guard (1981). Hormesis: a response to low environmental concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons. Science, 211: 705-707.
Elhassaneen, Y.A. (2001): More quickly method for determination the potential chemical toxins and/or carcinogens in the Egyptian environment. Proceedings of the 3rd International & Trade Fair for Environmental Management and Technologies (29-31October), Ministry of state for Environmental Affairs, Cairo International Fairground, Egypt, pp. 455-455.