Protective Effect of Nutmeg and Rosemary on Oxidative Stress in Hypercholesterolemic Rats
The present work was conducted to study the effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) spices or their essential oils on the nutritional parameters of rats suffering from hypercholesterolemic. Fifty-four male rats weighting approximately 300 grams were divided into nine groups, each group containing six rats. Group H1 fed on basal diet as a control negative group. Group H2 fed on diets containing 15% of beef tallow instead of the fresh sunflower oil proportion and allowed added 1 % of H2O2 in the drinking water to increase the oxidative stress and the other groups H4, H5, H6 , H7, H8 and H9 fed on the same diet used in group H2 and supplemented with different treatments nutmeg , rosemary and mixture powders groups H4, H5, H6 (2g / 100 g diet) , respectively. Meanwhile, groups H7, H8 and H9 fed on the same diet used in group H2 and supplemented with different treatments nutmeg , rosemary and mixture essential oils (0.6gm / 100 gm fat) , respectively. Group H3 fed on the same diet used in group H2 and supplemented with (drug) Lipitor Atorvastatin(20 mg/Kg BW rat/day by stomach tube). After 8 weeks the rats feeding with treatments and hypercholesterolemic diet rats significantly decreased levels of glucose. The treatment also resulted in a significant improvement in lipid profile, oxysterol levels, liver function, and kidney function. However, a significantly increment in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reduced (GSH) were observed in blood of hypercholesterolemic rats treated with nutmeg, rosemary powders or their essential oils. The treated groups showed a significant decrement in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA) in serum. Since the study of induction of the redox enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the spices. Treatment with nutmeg, rosemary powders or their essential oils reduces the histopathological, heart, liver and kidney abnormalities associated with hypercholesterolemic.
Naglaa H. M. Hassanen,
Protective Effect of Nutmeg and Rosemary on Oxidative Stress in Hypercholesterolemic Rats, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2015, pp. 465-476.
Doha A. M.; Thanaa E. H. and Sahar Y. A., (2010). Reduction in hypercholesterolemia and risk of cardiovascular diseases by mixtures of plant food extracts: a study on plasma lipid profile, oxidative stress and testosterone in rats. Grasas Y Aceites, 61 (4), 378-389.
Rahman T., Ismail H., Towhidul I. M. M., Hossain U. S., (2012). Oxidative stress and human health. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3, 997-1019.
Thorand B, Baumert J, Chambless L, Meisinger C, Kobb H, Doring A,(2006). For the MONICA/KORA study group. Elevated markers of endothelial dysfunction predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men and women from the general population. Arterioscler Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 26, 398-405.
Thanan R., Shinji O. , Yusuke H. , Shiho O. , Ning M. ,Somchai P. , Puangrat Y. , Shosuke K. and Mariko M., (2015). Oxidative Stress and Its Significant Roles in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 16, 193-217.
Gill S. S. and Tuteja N.,(2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48 , 909- 930.
Anh N. L., ( 2015). Lipoprotein-Associated Oxidative Stress: A New Twist to the Postprandial Hypothesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 16, 401-419.
Shazamawati Z.H. ;A.R. Alina; A. Siti Mashitoh and M.J. Thema Juhana , (2013). Cholesterol Oxidation Products Analysis in Meat and Poultry. Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 16, 67-78.
Jusakul A., Yongvanit P., Loilome W., Namwat N., Kuver R., (2011). Mechanisms of oxysterol-induced carcinogenesis. Lipids in Health and Disease , 10:44,1-8.
Levy D.; J. L. M. Ruiz; A. T. Celestino;S. F. Silva ; A. K. Ferreira ;C. Isaac , S. P. Bydlowski ,( 2014). Short-term effects of 7-ketocholesterol on human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ,446, 720–725.
Guenther M., ( 1961). The essential oils, Vol. III, IV, 4th Ed. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. Princeton, New Jersy. Tornto, New York, London.
Zahra Salemi and Pooya, Samaneh Kamali (2012). Toxicity of Margarine on liver Enzymes (Aspartate amino transferas and Alanine amino transferase) in Rats. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 6 ( 17 ) : 655-659.
Hegested, D.M. ; Mills, R.C. ; Elvehijem, C.A. and Hart, F.B., (1941). Choline in the nutrition of check. J. Biol. Chem., 138: 459.
Camplell , T.A. , (1961). Methodology of protein evaluation. RAG. Nutr. Document R.101 adds. 37, June Melting, New York.
Ali H., A. F. M. T. Rahman, S. Islam, Al Mamun, Shaheda Z., A. H. M. Khurshid A., Aziz A., Mamunur R., (2014). Combined Therapy of Pioglitazone and Atorvastatin Alleviate Diabetes in Rats More Effectively than That of Mono Therapy. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 5, 504-513.
Trinder, P. (1969). Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an altemative oxygen acceptor . Am. Clin. Biochem., 6:24-27.
Waston, D.A., (1960): Simple method for the determination of serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem. Acta., 5:589-596.
Assmann, G., (1979). A fully enzymatic colorimetric determination of HDL-cholesterol in the serum. Internist, 20: 559-565.
Wieland, H. and Seidel, D. , (1983): A fully enzymatic colorimetric determination of HDL-cholesterol in the serum. J. Nutr., 109: 760 - 766.
Wallach, J., (1992): Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests. A synopsis of aboratory medicine, 5 th Ed. A little brown hand - book, Boston.
Fossati, P. and Prencipe, L., (1982): The determination of triglycerdes using enzymatic methods. Clin. Chem., 28: 2077 – 2081.
Kikuchi, H. H.; Onodera, N.; Mastubara, S.; Yasuda, E.; Chonan, O.; Takahashi, R. and Ishikawa, F. (1998).Effects of soy milk and bifidobacterium fermented soy milk on lipid metabolism in aged ovariectomized rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 62, (9): 1688-1692.
Bergmeyer, H. U. and Harder, M., (1986). A colorimeteric method of determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Clin. Biochem., 24: 28 - 34.
Varley, H. ; Gewenlock, A. and Bell, M., (1980): Practical Clinical Biochemistry. vol. 1. 5thed., pp. 741, 897. London: William Heinemen Medical. Books, Ltd.
Henry, R. J. , (1974). Clinical Chemistry, Principles and Technichs, 2 nd Edition, Harper and Raw, p. 525.
] Fawcett, J. K. and Scott, J. E. ,(1960). Enzymatic colorimetric method for determination urea in serum, plasma and urine. J. Clin. Path., 13,156-162.
Caraway, W. T. (1955). Determination of uric acid in serum by a carbonate method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 25: 840-845.
Meltzer, H.M. ; Folmer, M.; Wang, S. ; Lie, Q. ; Maage, A. and Mundal, H.H., (1997). Supplementary selenium influences the response to fatty acid induced oxidative stress in humans. Biological Trace Element Research, 60: 51-67.
Ellman, G.L., (1959). Tissue sulfhydrl groups. Archieves of Biochem. and Biophys., 82: 70–77.
Rotruck. J.J.; Pope, A. L.; Ganther, H.E. and Swanson, A.B., (1973). Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science, 179: 588–590.
Nishikimi ,M.; Roa,N.A. and Yog,K., (1972). The occurrence of superoxide anion in the reaction of reduced phenazine methosulphate and molecular oxygen. Biochem.Bioph. Res. Common., 46: 849-854 .
Aebi H.,(1984).Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol .,105:121-136.
Mafouz, M.M. and Kummerow, F.A. (2000). Cholesterol-rich diets have different effects on lipid peroxidation, cholesterol oxides, and antioxidant enzymes in rats and rabbits. J. Nutri. Biochem., 11: 293- 302.
Miyajima, H.; Adachi, J.; Kohno, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Ueno, Y. and Naito, T. (2001).Increased oxysterols associated with iron accumulation in the brains and visceral organs of acaeruloplasminaemia patients. J. Med; 94: 417- 422.
Yoon, B.I.; Choi, Y.K. ; Kim, D.Y.; Hyun, B.H.; Joo, K.H.; Rim, H.J. and Lee, J.H. (2001): Infectivity and pathological changes in murine clonorchiasis: Comparison in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 63(4): 421-425.
Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1980). Statistical methods. 7th Ed., p. 420. Iowa Stat. Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA .
Hsu, T.C., Y.C Chen, C. C. Tsai, J.H., Wu, S.L Li and B.S. Tzang (2010): Protective effect of taurin against hepatic abnormality in NZB/W F1 mice fed a hypercholesterolemia diet. Food Chem.; 119: 62-68.
Monira A. A., Nermin M. E. and Hamdy T., (2012). The Protective Role of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in Lead Acetate Induced Toxicity in Rats. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(6): 3071-3082.
Rezq, A. A. and El-Khamisy A. E., (2011). Hypolipideimic and Hypocholestermic Effect of Pine Nuts in Rats Fed High Fat, Cholesterol-Diet. World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (12): 1667-1677.
Sheyla, L.M.; H. De Paula1; L.P. Maria, C. Rinaldo; E. Santos and L. Deoclécio (2005). Dietary models for inducing hypercholesterolemia in rats. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Tech.; 48: P.203-209.
Manal, A. H.; Soha, H. A. and Ashraf, A. A., (2012). Effect of Water Extract Prepared from Green Tea, Black Tea and Cinnamon on Obese Rats Suffering from Diabetes. World Applied Sciences Journal 20 (7): 976-987.
Uthandi A. and Ramasamy K. (2011). Hepatoprotective activity of sesame meal on high fat fed wistar rats. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research ,Vol.2(12),205-211.
Puskas, L.G., Z.B. Nagy, Z. Giricz, A. Onody, C. Csonka, and K. Kitajka, (2004). Cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia influences gene expression pattern of rat hearts: a DNA microarray study, FEBS Lett.; 562: P.99-104.
Norazmir, M.N. and Ayub, M.Y.(2010). Beneficial Lipid-Lowering Effects of Pink Guava Puree in High Fat Diet Induced-Obese Rats. Mal J Nutr 16(1): 171 – 185.
Labban L.; U. E. Mustafa and Y. M. Ibrahim,(2014). The Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Leaves Powder on Glucose Level, Lipid Profile and Lipid Perodoxation. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5, 297-304.
Jaiswal P., Pradeep Kumar, Vinay K Singh, Dinesh K Singh,(2009). Biological Effects of Myristica fragrans. ARBS Annu Rev Biomed Sci .,11:21-29.
Shafaeizadeh, S.; J. Jalal; Akbare O. A.; A. Leila; R. Roghayeh; Narges K. ; Negar R. A. T., (2011). The effect of consuming oxidized oil supplemented with fiber on lipid profiles in rat model. J Res Med Sci., 16(12): 1541-1549.
Kareem M. A.; G. S. Krushna; S. A. Hussain and K. L. Devi ,(2009).Effect of Aqueous Extract of Nutmeg on Hyperglycaemia, Hyperlipidaemia and Cardiac Histology Associated with Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 8 (4): 337-344.
Mohammadi, A. and Oshaghi, E. (2014): Effect of garlic on lipid profile and expression of LXR alpha in intestine and liver of hypercholesterolemic mice. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders; 13:20 .
Vestergaard, M. C. Yoda, T. Hamada, T., Akazawa, Y.,Yoshida, Y. and Takagi, M. (2011). The effect of oxycholesterols on thermo-induced membrane dynamics. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1808 : 2245–2251.
Szuchman, A., Aviram, M., Musa, R., Khatib, S., Vaya, J. (2008). Characterization of oxidative stress in blood from diabetic vs hypercholesterolaemic patients, using a novel synthesized marker. Biomarkers, 13: 119–131.
Seet, R.C.S., Lee, C.-Y.J., Lim, E.C.H., Tan, J.J.H., Quek, A.M.L., Chong, W.-L., Looi, W.-F., Huang, S.-H., Wang, H., Chan, Y.-H., Halliwell, B. (2010). Oxidative damage in Parkinson disease: measurement using accurate biomarkers. Free Radical Biol. Med., 48: 560–566.
Macfarlane, I. ;Bomford, A. and Sherwood, R.A. (2000).Liver diseases and Laboratory Medicine.ACB Ventures Publications London.
Dauqan E., M.A. ;A. Abdullah and H. A. Sani (2012).Lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes innormal and stressed rat fed with palm olein. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 9 (7): 1071-1078.
Cui , B.; L. Su; L. XiaoJun; W.Jun; L. ShuHong; W. QiBo and S. P. Li ,(2011). Effects of Lycium Barbarum Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts on High-Fat-Diet Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver Tissue. Molecules, 16, 9116-9128.
Sulzle, A., Hirch, F. and Eder, K. (2004). Thermally oxidized dietary fat upregulates the expression of target genes of PPARα in rat liver. J. Nutr., 134: 1375-1383.
Stevens, L. A. ;Coresh, J. ; Greene, T. and Andrew, S. L. (2006). Assessing kidney function - measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate. N. England Journal of Medicine, 354:2473-2483.
Bequette, B.J. and Sunny, N.E. (2005). Reading nitrogenexcretion in ruminants : the potential to increase urea recycling. Proc.of the 3 rd Mild- Atlantic Nutrition Confefence, Timonium, Maryland,22-24 March,123-133.
De Castro, U.; S.R. Silva; M. Lima;W. Campagnole-Santos, M. and Alzamora A. (2013). Age-dependent effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation in liver and kidney of rats. Lipids in Health and Disease; 12:136 .
Khan, N. and H. Mukhtar, (2007). Tea polypohenols for health promotion . Life Sci., 81: 519-533.
Amin K. A.; Galaly S. R.; Hozayen W. G. and Ramadan S. M. (2014). Effects of Orlistat and Herbal Mixture Extract on Renal Function and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in a Rat Model of High Fat Diet. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review,4 (2): 173-192.
Hamzaa R. G., A. N. El Shahat and H.M.S. Mekawey,(2012). Modulating Efficiency of γ-Irradiated Rosemary in Improving the Hepatic Antioxidant Status of Ethanol Administrated Rats. Biochem Anal Biochem , 1, 1-8.