Systematic Reviews of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Under Five Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Finding the Evidence
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 459-464
Received: May 27, 2015;
Accepted: Jun. 9, 2015;
Published: Jun. 25, 2015
Views 4494 Downloads 257
Mulugeta Molla Birhanu, Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Background: Globally, 165 million children are stunted. Currently in Ethiopia, 14 %, 9%, and 25% of children are stunted, wasted and underweight respectively. This paper is intended to provide compressive and up to date evidence on the prevalence and investigate the associated factors of Malnutrition in Ethiopia from January, 2000 to May, 2015. Methods: A quantitative epidemiological systematic literature review was conducted by searching different published articles in different data bases which is written in English including MEDLINE, PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane and grey literatures. The search was restricted to population based studies on malnutrition in Ethiopia published between January 2000 and May 2015. All data were extracted independently by a single reviewer using a standardized protocol and data collection form. Eleven publications met the inclusion criteria. The total pooled data were eleven surveys involving over 7,959 participants. Results: The reported rate of malnutrition is varied widely; the highest rate of under nutrition, stunting and wasting was 49.2, 57.1 and 42.3 respectively and the lowest rate of under nutrition, stunting and wasting was 8.9,24, 4.1 respectively. This variation could be due to seasonal variation; differences in participants mean ages, source population and study settings. This review found a high prevalence of malnutrition both in urban and rural residents and different associated factors including age, sex, prelactal feeding, malaria, deprivation of colostrum and other 17other associated factors. Conclusion and recommendation: Under five malnutrition was considerably prevalent in Ethiopia. Further investigation is important for other vulnerable groups like lactating women, school children, people with different chronic non communicable diseases and older age groups. Primary prevention tailored to provide education on weaning practice, early initiation of breast feeding, family planning, prevention of malaria and diarrhea, health education about fruits and vegetables and malnutrition screening in primary health care context would be of immense value. Further Meta-analysis study is also recommended.
Mulugeta Molla Birhanu,
Systematic Reviews of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Under Five Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Finding the Evidence, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2015, pp. 459-464.
Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Jai K Das, ArjumandRizvi, Michelle F Gaff ey, Neff Walker, Susan Horton, Patrick Webb, Anna Lartey, Robert E Black, the Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?. Lancent 2013; Published Online June 6, 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(13)60996-4)
Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, and the Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 2013; published online June 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140- 6736(13)60937-X.
Liu L, Johnson HL, Cousens S, et al, for the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. Lancet 2012; 379: 2151–61.
Jones G et.al. How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Lancet 2004; 362:65-71.
Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. Lancet. 2008, 371(9609).
Glewwe P, Miguel EA. the Impact of Child Health and Nutrition on education in less developed countries. In: Paul Schultz T, John S, editors. Hand book of Development Economics. Volume 4. Oxford: Elsevier B.V; 2007. p. 3561 –606
Abuya BA, CieraJM, Kimani-Murage E. Effect of mother’s education on child’s nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:80
Jesmin A, Yamamoto SS, Malik A, Haque A. Prevalence and determinants of chronic malnutrition among preschool children. J Health PopulNutr. 2011;29(5):494–9.
Dewey KG, Begum KB. Long-term consequences of stunting in early life. Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2011;7(3):5–18.
Kar BR, Rao SL, Chandramouli BA. Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition. Behavioral and Brain Functions: BMC; 2008. p. 4(31)
WHO. WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.
Central Statistical Agency [Ethiopia] and ICF International. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: Central Statistical Agency and ICF International; 2012.
Taylor L. From food crisis to nutrition: challenges and possibilities in Ethiopia’s nutrition sector. Analysing Nutrition Governance: Ethiopia Country Report; 2012.http://www.ids.ac.uk/idsproject/analysing-nutrition-governance.
Teshome B, Kogi-Makau W, Getahun Z, Taye G. Magnitude and determinants of stunting in children underfive years of age in food surplus region of Ethiopia: the case of west gojam zone. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2009;23(2):99–106.
Sisay Z. Magnitude and Factors Associated with Malnutrition of Children Under Five Years of Age in Rural Kebeles of Haramaya. Haramaya University: Ethiopia: Harar Bulletin of Health Sciences; 2012.
Central Statistical Agency (Ethiopia). 2014. Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med. 2009; 6:e1000097.
Tamiru M, Belachew E., Semaw F. Under Nutrition and Associated Factors Among Under-Five Age Children of Kunama Ethnic Groups in TahtayAdiyaboWoreda, Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia:Community based study. International Journal of Nutrition and food sciences. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, PP. 277-288. Doi:10.11648/j.ijnfs.20120403.15
Deribew A, Alemseged F, Tessema F, Sena L, Birhanu Z, et al. (2010) Malaria and Under-Nutrition: A Community Based Study Among Under-Five Children at Risk of Malaria, South-West Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 5(5): e10775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010775
Mulugeta A, Hagos F, Kruseman G, Linderhof V, Stoeker B, et al Factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray region.East African Medical Journal Vol. 87 No. 6 June 2010
Brhane G., Regassa N. Nutritional status of children under fie years of age in Shire Indaselassie, North Ethiopia: Examining the prevalence and risk factors. Kontakt 2014; 16(3): e161–e170; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kontakt.2014.06.00
Asres G and Arthur I. Eidelman. Nutritional assessment of Ethiopian Beta-Israel Children: A cross-sectiona; survey: Breast feeding Medicine Vol 6, Number 4, 2011, DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0016
Endris M, Assessment of nutritional status of preschool children of Gumbrit, North West Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2007;21(2):125-129
Solomon D, Amare W. Magnitude and Factors Associated with Malnutrition in Children 6-59 Months of Age in Pastoral Community of Dollo Ado District, Somali Region, Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health. Vol 1, No. 4, 2013, PP.175-183
Asfaw M, Mekitie W, Mohammed T, Lemessa D. Prevalence of under nutrition and associated factors among children aged between six to fifty nine months in Blue Hora district, South Ethiopia: BMC Public health (2015) 15:41 DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1370-9
Mengistu K, Alemu K, Destaw B: prevalence of Malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months at HidabuAbote District, North Shewa, Oromia Regional state. J Nutr Disorder TherTI:001.doi:10.4172/2161-0509.TI-001
Hailemariam T. Prevalence of underweight and its determinant factors of under two children in a rural areas of Western Ethiopia: Food science and quality management Vol 31, 2014: ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online).