Evaluation of Composite Blends of Fermented Fenugreek and Wheat Flour to Assess Its Suitability for Bread and Biscuit
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages: 29-35
Received: Dec. 24, 2014;
Accepted: Jan. 12, 2015;
Published: Jan. 22, 2015
Views 3527 Downloads 424
Atlaw Tamiru Kasaye, Department of Food Science & Postharvest Technology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Yogesh Kumar Jha, Food Process Engineering Program, School of Chemical and Bio Engineering, Addis Ababa Institute of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Flour of fenugreek supplemented at 5, 10, and 15% levels with wheat flour was assessed for the production of bread and biscuit to improve nutritional profile. Germinated fenugreek flour samples had 29.89% crude protein, 7.91% crude fat, 11.35% crude fiber and 2.94% ash on dry weight basis. The wet gluten, falling number, and water activity of wheat flour reduced on incorporation of germinated fenugreek flour while the foaming capacity, water and oil absorption increased for bread and biscuit blended wheat flours. The farinograph water absorption values were 66.3, 63.9 and 61.8%, while the dough stability values were 7.0, 9.0 and 10.5 min at 5, 10 and 15% supplementation levels, respectively. The dough development times were 4.5, 6.1, and 7.5 min and farinograph quality numbers were 76, 100 and 123 Brabender units, respectively. The microbiological analysis of value added products for coliforms, E.coli, and yeast was absent, and TPC and mould counts were lower than control. The nutritive values in terms of protein, fiber, ash as well as calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc content of bread and biscuit increased as a result of the supplementation of germinated fenugreek flour to wheat flour. The sensory evaluation of the bread samples made by supplementation at 5 and 10% and 5% levels for biscuit were rated acceptable.
Atlaw Tamiru Kasaye,
Yogesh Kumar Jha,
Evaluation of Composite Blends of Fermented Fenugreek and Wheat Flour to Assess Its Suitability for Bread and Biscuit, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2015, pp. 29-35.
Addisu K. 2011. Optimization of Extrusion conditions for Developing Ready-to-Eat defatted soy-rice and chocolate blend extrudate. M.Sc. thesis. Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Agrawal S R. 1990. Prospects for small-scale biscuit industry in the nineties. Indian Food Industry 19-21:22.
Ajanaku K O, Ajanaku C O, Edobour-OsohA, Nwinyi O C. 2012. Nutritive value of Sorghum Ogi fortified with groundnut seed (Arachis hypogaea L.). Am. J. Food Technol 79:82-88.
AOAC 2000. Official methods of Analysis. 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC
Bolandi F, Shahidi N, Sedaghat R F, H Mousavi-Nik 2008. Shelf-life Determination of Saffron Stigma Water Activity and Temperature Studies World Applied Sciences Journal 5: 132-136
Coffman, C.W. and Garcia, V.V. 1977. Functional properties and amino acid content of a protein isolate from mung bean flour. J. Food Technology (U.K.) 12:473.
Etana L, Y K Jha, S A Emire. 2013. Development and Evaluation of Value Added bread made By supplementation of defatted rice bran to Wheat flour. J. Beverage and Food World 40:11-14.
Fretzdarff B, Brummer J M 1992. Reduction of phytic acid during bread-making of whole eal bread, Cereal Chem 69: 266-270.
Gall, Alevtina, and Zerihun S. (2009). Ethiopian Traditional and Herbal Medications and their Interactions with Conventional Drugs. EthnoMed. University of Washington. Retrieved on october 13, 2011.
Hegazy AI, Ibrahim MI. 2009. Evaluation of the nutritional protein quality of wheat biscuit supplemented by fenugreek seed flour. W. J. Dairy Food Sci 4:129-135.
Helen W. 2011. Influence of processing on antinutrients and production of some value added finger millet based products. Msc thesis. Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University. Ethiopia.
McWatters KH, Ouedraogo J B, Resurreccion YC Hung, DR. 2003. Physical and sensory characteristics of sugar cookies containing mixtures of wheat, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flours. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol 38: 403-410
Meilgaard M C, Civille G V, Carr B T 2007. Sensory Evaluation Techniques, 4th edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Narayana K, Narasinga Rao M S 1984. Effect of partial hydrolysis on winged bean flours. J Food Sci 49:944-947.
Neilsen S S 2003. Food analysis Laboratory manual. Springer Science, U.S.A.
Oladipo F Y, Nwokocha L M 2011. Effect of Sida acuta and Corchorus olitorius Mucilages on the Physicochemical Properties of Maize and Sorghum Starches. Asian J.Applied Sci 4:514-525.
Rao H P, Hemamalini R 1991. Effect of incorporating wheat bran on reheological characteristic and bread making quality of flour. J. Food. Sci. Technol 28: 92-97.
Rosell C M, Rojas J A, Benedito C 2001. Influence of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality. Food Hydrocolloids 15: 75-81
Shalini H, Sudesh J. 2002. Effect of soaking and germination on nutrient and antinutrient contents of fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum l.) J of Food. Bioch 27: 165-176.
Shalini H, Sudesh J. 2003. Physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic characteristics of wheat-fenugreek supplemented blends. Nahrung/Food 265 – 268.
Shalini H, Sudesh J. 2004. Nutritional Evaluation of Wheat–Fenugreek Blends for Product Making. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 59: 149–154.
Shalini H, Sudesh J. 2005. Effect of fenugreek flour blending on physical, organoleptic and chemical characteristics of wheat bread. Nutrition & Food Science 35: 229-242.
Sharma H R, Chauhan G S. 2000. Physical, sensory and chemical characteristics of wheat breads supplemented with fenugreek. Journal Food Science 37: 91-94.
Sharma R.D, Raghuram T C, Rao N S. 1996. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr 44: 301–306.
Stark A, Madar Z. 1993. The effect of ethanol extract derived from fenugreek on bile acid absorption and cholesterol levels in rats. Br J. Nutr. Jan 69 : 277-37.
Toufeili I. 1999. The role of gluten proteins in the baking of Arabic Bead. J. Cereal Science 30:255 – 265.
Tizazu S, Urga K, Abuye C, Retta N.2010. Improvement of energy and nutrient density of sorghum based complementary foods using germination. African journal of food agriculture nutrition and development 10: 2928-2942.
WHO. 1994. Guideline value for food and drinking water, World Health Organization Geneva: 3-4.