This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding on virgin olive oil (VOO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) at 50% and 100% with or without thyme leaves at 1% and 2.5% on pregnancy and lactation periods. Methods: One hundred and twenty adult female rats (120 ±5g) were randomly divided into 15 groups (n=8) for month before mating. On 19th day of pregnancy, half of pregnant rats were weighted, killed and their fetuses take off with uterus. Another half of pregnant rats were left to evaluate the lactation period. Biochemical assays, bone measurements and fertility hormones were evaluated. Results: Generally, the VOO groups were improved the health status of pregnant and lactating rats more than EVOO groups. The pregnant rats in VOO and thyme leaves powder groups were lower of body weight gain (BWG) without their fetuses than EVOO and thyme leaves powder groups. The mean weight of fetuses in VOO and thyme leaves powder groups were higher than EVOO combined with thyme leaves groups. Also, the feeding on olive oils with thyme leaves had an increase of number of fetuses and bone Ca and P contents. The results showed that, in an increasing of number of fetuses caused decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). Pregnant and lactating rats fed on 100% olive oils had TC, TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C lower than the rats fed on 50% olive oils. Also, the rats fed on olive oils and thyme leaves powder had increase in both E2 and progesterone levels before mating and at the end of lactation period compared to control group. Meanwhile, the prolactin hormone levels for rats at the end of lactation period were lower than on 19th day of pregnancy period. Conclusion: Diet which containing with olive oil improved the health status, especially during pregnancy and lactation periods. Consumption of olive oil and olive oil and thyme leaves could be reduce the risk of infertility in females.
Amany A. Salem,
Effect of Feeding on Olive Oil and Thyme on Pregnancy and Lactation Periods, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2015, pp. 19-28.
Encinias, HB; Lardy, GP; Eninias, AM and Baver, ML (2004). “High linoleic acid safflower seed supplementation for gestating ewes: Effects on ewe performance, lamb survival and brown fat stores.Journal of Animal Science, 82: 3654-3661.
Trichopoulou A and Dilis V. (2007). Olive oil and longevity. Mol. Nutr. Food Res; 51: 1275 – 1278.
Covas, M.I. (2007). Olive oil and cardiovascular system. Pharmacol. Res., 55; 175–186.
Verbance, D. (2004). Nutrition habits in pregnant women and early childhood as a tool for obesity prerention. Paediatria Croatica 48: 41-5.
Baird, DT; James, VHT; Serio, M and Giusti, G (1976).Ovarian steroid secretion and metabolism in women. In: the endocrine function of the human ovary. Academic press, New York, pp: 125-133.
Faber, A; Bouvy, ML; Loskamp, LS; Vande Berg, PB; Egberts, TC; de Tong- Van den Berg, LT (2005). Dramatic change in prescribing of hormone replacement therapy in the Netherland after publication of the Million women study: a following up study. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol 60 (6): 641 - 647.
Santiago-Mora, R; Casado-Diaz, A; De Castro, MD and Quesada-Gómez, JM (2011).Oleuropein enhances osteoblostogensis and inhibits adipogenses: the effect on differentiation in stem cells drived from bone marrow. Osteoporos. Int. 22 (2): 675 - 684.
Rowe S, Alexander N, Almeida NG, Black R, Burns R, Bush L, Crawford P, Keim N, Kris-Etherton P and Weaver C. (2011). Translating the Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010 to bring about real behavior change. J. Am. Diet Assoc. 111 (1): 28-39.
Buckland G; Travier N; Agudo A; Fonsecs-Nunes A; Navarro C; Lagiou P; Demetriou C; Amiano P; Dorronsoro M; Chirlaque M-D; Huerta J-M; Molina E; Maria-José SP; Ardanaz E; Conchi M-I; Quirós JR; Naska A; Trichopoulos D; Giurdanella MC; Tumino R; Agnoli C; Grioni S; Panico S; Mattiello A; Masala G; Sacerdote C; Polidoro S; Palli D; Trichopolou A; and Gonzá AC (2012). Olive oil intake and breast cancer risk in the Mediterranean countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Int. J. Cancer: 131, 2465–2469.
Chetty, N., Regene, C.K.; Harris, M.A.T; Waneence, C.D.; Dovesey, M.A.T. Dagne Hill, M.A.T.; Chetty, S.; Yarrapragada, R. and Jain. S. (1999): Dietary supplematation with olive oil influence iron concentration in rat. Nutr. Res. 19: 1665-1670.
Zarachi, M.A.K. and Babaci, A. (2006): An investigation of thyme effect on Hiliocobacterpylosi. Middle. East J. of Sci. Res. 1 (1): 54-57.
Reeves, P.G.; Nielsen, F.H. and Fahey, G.C. (1993). “AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition Ad HOC writing Committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76 a rodent diet.” J. Nutr., 123(12): 1939- 1951.
Drury, R.A. and Wallington, E.A. (1980). Carton's. Histological Technique. 5thed Oxford Univ.
Allain, C.Z.; Poon, Z.S. and Chen, C.S. (1974): Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 20: 470-475.
Fossati, P. and Principle, L. (1982). Enzymatic colorimetric method to determination triglyceriods. Clin. Chem. 28: 2077.
Burstein, M. (1970): HDL cholesterol determination after separation high density lipoprotein. Lipid. Res. 11: 583.
Essam El-Din, Maha, M. (2012). The protective effect of Turnip leaves against oxidative stress induced by high cholesterol diet in adult rats. World Applied Science Journal 20 (1): 154 – 163.
Abbott, R.D.; Wilson, P.W.; Kannel, W.B. and Castelli, W.P. (1988). High density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol screening, and myocardial infarction. The Framingham Study. Arteriosclerosis, 8, 207–211.
Patton, CJ and Crouch, SR (1977). Enzymatic colorimetric method to determination urea in serum. Anal. Chem. 49: 464.
Bohmer, H.B.U.M. (1971): Micro determination of creatinine Clin. Chem. Acta 32: 81-85.
Reitman, S and Frankel, S (1957). A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloactic and glucanic pyruvic transaminase. Am. J. Clin. Path. 28: 56.
Belfield, A and Golobkrg, DM (1971): Human serum glucose-6- phosphate activity conformation of its presence and lack of diagnostic value. Enzyme 12: 561.
A.O.A.C. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of the Analytical Chemists. 17thed published by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Po Box 540. Benjamin Franklin Station Washington DC. 20044.
Arjmand, B.H.; Alekel, L.; Hollis, B.W.; Amin, D.; Sapuntialcis, A.S., Guo, P and Pukereja, S.C. (1996): Dietary soybean prevents bone loss in an ovariectomyed not model of osteoporosis. J. Nut. 126: 161-167.
Blum; SC; Heaton, SN; Bowma, BM; Hegsted, M and Millei, SC (2003). Dietary soybean maintains some indices of bone mineral density and bone formation in aged overiectomized rats. J. Nutr. 1313: 1244-1249.
Tietz, NW (1995). Clinical guide to laboratory test. 3 edition, W. B. Saunders, Co., Philadelphia, pp: 578-580.
Siiteri, PK; Murai, JT; Hammond, GL; Nisker, JA; Raymoure, WJ and Kuhn, RW (1982). The serum transport of steroid hormones. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res., 38: 457-510.
Kass L, Durando M, Ramos JG, Varayoud J, Powell CE, Luque EH andMuñoz-de-Toro M (2004). Association of increased estrogen receptor beta2 expression with parity-induced alterations in the rat mammary gland. J Steroid BiochemMolBiol 91 (1-2):29–39.
Church, MW K-L; Catherine, J; Pellizzon, MA and Holmes, PA (1998). Prenatal Cocaine, Alcohol and Undernutrition Differentially Alter Mineral and Protein Content in Fetal rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 59(3): 577 – 584.
Snedecor, GW and Cochran WG (1989). Statistical methods. The Lowa State University Press. Ames, Lowe.
González-Santiago M; Martín-Bautista E; Carrero JJ; Fonollá J; Baró L; Bartolomé MV; Gil-Loyzaga P. and López-Huertas E. (2006). One-month administration of hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic antioxidant present in olive oil, to hyperlipemic rabbits improves blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and reduces atherosclerosis development. Atherosclerosis 188, 35–42.
Kotogionni, MD, Melistas, L; Yanakoulia, M.Malagaris I, Panagiotakos DB and Yiannakouris N(2009). Association between dietary patterns and indices of bone mass in a sample of Mediterranean women. Nutr. 25 (2): 165 - 171.
Trichopoulou A; Georgiou E; Bassiakos Y; Lipworth L; Lagiou P; Proukakis C and Trichopoulos D (1997). Energy intake and monounsaturated fat in relation to bone mineral density among women and men in Greece. Prev. Med. 26: 395– 400.
Puel C1, Mathey J, Agalias A, Kati-Coulibaly S, Mardon J, Obled C, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Horcajada MN, Skaltsounis AL and Coxam V(2006). Dose–response study of effect of oleuropein, an olive oil polyphenol, in an ovariectomy/inflammation experimental model of bone loss in the rat. Clin. Nutr. 25 (5): 859 – 868.
Hagiwara, K; Goto, T; Araki, M; Miyazaki, H and Hagiwara, H (2011). Olive polyphenol hydroxytyrosol prevents bone loss. Euro. J. Pharmacol., 662: 78 – 84.
Al-Amoudi and Araki (2013). Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 12:13.
Gorinstein, S; Leontowicz, HS;Leontowicz, M; Ciz, M; Krzeminski, R; Gralak, M.; Czerwinski, J; Jastrzebski, Z; Trakhtenberg, S; Grigelme-Mignel, N; Soliva –Fortung, R and Marten-Belloso, O (2002): Olive oil improve lipid metabolism and increase antioxidant potential in rats fed diet containing cholesterol. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 6102-6108.
Aguilera CM; Ramirez-Tortosa MC; Mesa MD; Ramirez-Tortosa CL and Gil A (2002). Sunflower, virgin-olive and fish oils differentially affect the progression of aortic lesions in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, 162: 335 – 44.
Egba, SI; Udom, ID and Oknkwo CO (2014).Comparative Effect of Oral Administration of Some Dietary Lipids on Fertility Hormones of Female Wistar Albino Rats. Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 9 (1): 24-29.
Michael J (2007). Neurology and General medicine: expert consults: online and print Edinburgh Churchill Living Stone.
Cerri, RLA, Rutighiano, HM; Chebel RC and Santos, JEP (2009). Period of dominance of the ovulatory follicle influences embryo quality in lactating dairy cows. Reproduction, 137: 813-823.
Reed, MJ; Cheng, RW; Simmonds, M; Richmond, W and James, VH (1987). Dietary lipids: an additional regulator of plasma levels of sex hormones binding globulin. J. Clin. Endocrinology, Metab. 64(5): 1083.