Research and Determination of Tartrazine in Artisanal Yoghurts Commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 119-122
Received: Feb. 7, 2014;
Published: Mar. 20, 2014
Views 3481 Downloads 241
Christophe N’Cho Amin, Département de Chimie Analytique, UFR Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques – Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Côte d’Ivoire
Nicaise François Bony, Département de Chimie Analytique, UFR Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques – Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Côte d’Ivoire
Gildas Komenan Gbassi, Département de Chimie Analytique, UFR Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques – Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Côte d’Ivoire
Michèle Aké, Département de Chimie Analytique, UFR Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques – Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Côte d’Ivoire
The use of tartrazine E 102 as a food dye is subject to restrictions. The limit dose allowed in dairy product is 300 mg kg-1. In order to discover and control this synthetic dye in commercialized yoghurt in Côte d'Ivoire, a method has been proposed to determine its content by ion pair reversed phase liquid chromatography (LC) after liquid-solid extraction followed by detection at 430 nm. The results of the validation tests (linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity) were satisfactory. The method was thus applied to 210 samples of yoghurt produced by the traditional sector and commercialized in Abidjan. The content of tartrazine was higher than the maximum allowed of 300 mg kg-1 in 10 (4.8%) samples. The repeated consumption of these yoghurts can eventually cause allergic reactions and hyperactivity disorders in susceptible consumers especially in children.
Christophe N’Cho Amin,
Nicaise François Bony,
Gildas Komenan Gbassi,
Research and Determination of Tartrazine in Artisanal Yoghurts Commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2014, pp. 119-122.
N. D. Fortin, Food regulation: law, science, policy, and practice, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
European Food Safety Authority, "Re-evaluation of tartrazine (E 102) as a food additive," The EFSA Journal, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1331, 2009.
S. Dixit, S. K. Khanna, and M. Das, "All India survey for analyses of colors in sweets and savories: exposure risk in Indian population," J Food Sci., vol. 78, no. 4, pp. T642-7, 2013.
M. S. Ha, S. D. Ha, S. H. Choi and D. H. Bae, "Exposure assessment of synthetic colours approved in Korea," Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 643-653, 2013.
S. L. Taylor, S. L. Hefle, and B. J. Gauger, "Food allergies and sensitivities," Food toxicology, W. H. a. C. K. Winter., ed., pp. 2-35, CRC Press, 2010.
M. M. Kamel, and H. S. El-lethey, "The potential health hazard of tartrazine and levels of hyperactivity, anxiety-like symptoms, depression and anti-social behaviour in rats," J. Am. Sci., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1211-1218, 2011.
B. De Reynal, and J.-L. Multon, Additifs et auxiliaires de fabrication dans les industries agroalimentaires: Lavoisier, 2009.
B. C. Ojeda, and S. F. Rojas, "Recent applications in derivative ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrophotometry: 2009–2011," Microchem. J., vol. 106, no. 1-16, 2013.
W. J. Li, Zhou. X., Tong. S.S. and Q. Jia, "Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide) monolithic column embedded with γ-alumina nanoparticles microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic food dyes in soft drink samples.," Talanta, vol. 105, pp. 386-392, 2013.
X. Ye, Y. Du, D. Lu and C. Wang, "Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.," Anal. Chim. Acta., vol. 779, pp. 22-34, 2013.
R. A. Medeiros, B. C. Lourencao, R. C. Rocha-Filho and O. Fatibello-Filho, "Flow injection simultaneous determination of synthetic colorants in food using multiple pulse amperometric detection with a boron-doped diamond electrode.," Talanta, vol. 99, pp. 883-889, 2012.
E. Diacu, and C. Petronela Ene, "Simultaneous determination of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drinks by liquid chromatography," Rev. Chim., vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 745-749, 2009.
E. Dinç, A. Hakan Aktaş, D. Baleanu and Ö. Üstündağ, "Simultaneous determination of tartrazine and allura red in commercial preparation by Chemometric HPLC method," J. Food Drug Anal., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 284-291, 2006.
W. J. Hurst, J. M. McKim, and R. A. Martin, "Determination of tartrazine in food products by HPLC," J. Food Sci., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 419-420, 1981.
D. P. Wittmer, N. O. Nuessle, and W. G. Haney Jr, "Simultaneous analysis of tartrazine and its intermediates by reversed phase liquid chromatography," Anal. Chem., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1422-23, 1975.
S. Bonan, G. Fedrizzi, S. Menotta and C. Elisabetta, "Simultaneous determination of synthetic dyes in foodstuffs and beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector," Dyes and Pigments, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 36-40, 2013.
V. R. Kostik, and T. Stafilov, "XAD-2 HPTLC Method of identification and determination of some synthetic food colourings," Anal. Lett., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1305-1316, 1995.
A. V. Schenone, M. J. Culzoni, N. R. Marsili and H. C. Goicoeche, "Determination of tartrazine in beverage samples by stopped-flow analysis and three-way multivariate calibration of non-linear kinetic-spectrophotometric," Food Chem., vol. 138, pp. 1928–1935, 2013.
M. J. Culzoni, A. V. Schenone, N. E. Llamas, M. Garrido, M. S. Di Nezio, B. S. Band and H. C. Goicoechea, "Fast chromatographic method for the determination of dyes in beverages by using high performance liquid chromatography--diode array detection data and second order algorithms," J. Chromatogr. A, vol. 1216, no. 42, pp. 7063-7070, 2009.
J. P. Chaytor, and R. L. Heal, "Separation of synthetic dyes by high-performance liquid chromatograph on 3-μm columns," J. Chromatogr. A, vol. 368, no. 450-455, 1986.
K. Ma, Y. N. Yang, X. X. Jiang, M. Zhao, Y. Q. Cai, Simultaneous determination of 20 food additives by high performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detector, Chinese Chem. Lett. Vol. 23, pp. 492–495, 2012.
M. Aké, H. Boni, N. Bony, E. Atindéhou and K. A. Malan, "Recherche et détermination de la tartrazine par chromatographie par paire d'ions : application aux limonades commercialisées en Côte d'Ivoire," Ann. Fals. Exp. chim. Toxico., vol. 956, pp. 281-289, 2001.
Z. Li, S. Song, L. Xu, H. Kuang, S. Guo and C. Xu, "Development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for detecting tartrazine," Sensors, vol. 13, pp. 8155-8169, W. J. Li, Zhou. X., Tong. S.S. and Q. Jia 2013.
Validation of analytical procedures: Text and methodology ICH Standard Topic Q2 (R1), 2005.
L. J. Stevens, K. Thomas, J. R. Burgess, E. Hurt and L. E. Arnold, "Dietary Sensitivities and ADHD Symptoms: Thirty-five Years of Research," Clin. Pediatr., vol. XX, no. X, pp. 1-15, 2010.