International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 79-90
Received: Feb. 5, 2014;
Published: Feb. 28, 2014
Views 3548 Downloads 187
Neamah Raef Attalla, Animal Production Institute, Agric. Res. Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Eman Fouad Mohamed, Animal Production Institute, Agric. Res. Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Wael Helmy Moussa El-Reffaei, Regional Centre for Food and Feed (RCFF), Agric. Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt
Nemat Ibrahiem Bassyoni, Regional Centre for Food and Feed (RCFF), Agric. Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt
Goat milk is cheap and contains adequate quantities of iron, folate, vitamins C and D, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid to meet an infant’s nutritional needs. The fat globules are smaller and easier to digest. New formula of goat cheese is formulated to develop a new economic producer contain a nourished flavored cheese. Fortification goat cheese with caramel, cocoa and cocoa with walnuts are corresponding high quality protein ingredient for sweet spreadable cheese. The ω-6/ ω-3 ratio was at level 6.00, 7.7 and 4.7 contribute to caramel sweet cheese, cocoa sweet cheese, and cocoa & walnut cheese, respectively. Methionine + cysteine and follows by tryptophan were the most limiting essential amino acids, in these ingredients. Different formulas’ goat cheese could be improved their amino acids scores. The highest cohesiveness value was recorded for of cocoa and walnut sweet cheese treatment followed by caramel spreadable sweet cheese and cocoa spreadable sweet cheese appreciable differences between them. Revealing to microbiologic assays, sweet cheese samples is stable during storage against poising bacteria and other microorganisms. Conclusion, a fortified sweet goat cheese with cocoa and walnut could be regards as Egyptian economic products and nourished for human consumption especially for children feeding.
Neamah Raef Attalla,
Eman Fouad Mohamed,
Wael Helmy Moussa El-Reffaei,
Nemat Ibrahiem Bassyoni,
Production and Evaluation of Sweet Spreadable Goat Cheese, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2014, pp. 79-90.
Meyer, A., 1973. Processed cheese manufacture. (1 ST ed.) Food trade press LTd., London, UK.
Kosikowski, F. V. and V. V. Mistry, 1997a. Bakers’, Neufchatel, Cream, Quark, and Ymer. Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods – Origins and Principles, Volume 2, 3rd edn., pp. 147–161, F.V. Kosikowski, L. L. C., Westport.
Schulz-Collins, D. and B. Senge, 2004. Acid- and acid/rennet-curd cheeses, part A.: Quark, cream cheese and related varieties. Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology – Major Cheese Groups, (eds. P. F. Fox, P. L. H.McSweeney, T. M. Cogan & T. P. Guinee), 3rd edn. Volume 2, pp. 301–328, Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam.
FAO/WHO ,2007e. Codex standard for cream cheese, CODEX STAN 275–1973. Codex Alimentarius Milk and Milk Products, pp. 158–164, Communication Division FAO, Rome. (www.codexalimentarius.net/web/standard list).
Guo B. H., 2004 .Modern dairy products processing technology-cheese [M]. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 32. (In Chinese)
Subramanian, R., K. Muthukumarappan and S. Gunasegaram, 2006. Linear viscoelastic properties of regular- and reduced-fat pasteurized process cheese during heating and cooling. International Journal of Food Properties, 9: 377–393.
Georgia D., S., and A. Thomareis, 2008. Effect of chemical composition on the linear viscoelastic properties of spreadable-type processed cheese. Journal of Food Engineering 84: 368–374
Minife, B. W., 1989. Chocolate, cocoa and confectionary (3rd Ed.). London: Chapman and Hall.
Rambali, B., I. Van Andel, E. Schenk, G. Wolterink, G. Van de Werken, H. Stevenson and W. Vleenming, 2002. The contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction. RIVM report 650270002.
Morgan, J., 1994. Chocolate: A flavour and texture unlike any other. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60(6):1065–10675.
Blomhoff R., M. H. Carlsen, L.F . Andersen and D. R., Jacobs ,2006. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants. Br J Nutr 96(S2):S52–S60
Mexis S.F., A. V. Badeka , K.A . Riganakos, K. X. Karakostas, and M. G. Kontominas ,2009. Effect of packaging and storage conditions on quality of shelled walnuts. Food Control 20(8):743–751
Oliveira R, M. Fátima Rodrigues, and M. Gabriela Bernardo-Gil (2002) Characterization and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of walnut oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 79(3):225–230.
Gharibzahedi S.M.T., S.M. Mousavi, M .Hamedi, and F. Khodaiyan ,2011. Determination and characterization of kernel biochemical composition and functional compounds of Persian walnut oil. Journal of Food Science and Technology http://www.springerlink.com/ content/07532j13544rn811/ (Accessed on 13th, November, 2011)
Mariela M. T., L. M. Marcela and M.I. Damián ,2005. A Multivariate Study of the Relationship Between Fatty Acids and Volatile Flavor Components in Olive and Walnut Oils. JAOCS, Vol. 82, no. 2 :105-110.
Pereira, .JA. , I. Oliveira, A. Sousa, I. C. Ferreira, A. Bento and L. Estevinho ,2008. Bioactive properties and chemical composition of six walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars. Food Chem Toxicol 46 (6):2103–2111.
AOAC, 2012. Official Methods of Analysis. 19th ed. Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC International.
Miller E. L. ,1967. Determination of the tryptophan content in feeding stuffs with particular reference to cereals. J. Sci. Food Agric., 18:381-386.
FAO/WHO/UNU ,1985. Energy and protein requirement . WHO technical Reporte Series NO.724, World Health Organization Geneva.
Mente, E., P. Coutteau, Dominic Houlihan, I. Davidson and P. Sorgeloos ,2002. Protein turnover, amino acid profile and amino acid flux in Juvenile Shrimp Litopenaeus Vannamei: Effects of dietary protein source. The Journal of Expermintal Biology. 205:3107-3122.
Hidvégi, M., and F. Bekes ,1984. Mathematical modeling of protein quality from amino acid composition. Proc. Int. Assoc. Cereal Chem. Symp. Ed ., by R. Lasztity and M,. Hidvégi, p. 205. Akademiai Kiad Budapest (cited from Mubarak (2001), Nahrung / Food , 45 (4):241-245.
Alsmeyer R. H., A. E. Cunningham and M. L. Happich, 1974. Equations predict PER from amino acid analysis. Food Technol. (7): 34-38.
Bourne, M. C. , 2003. Food texture and viscosity: concept and measurement. Elsevier Press, New York/ London
Marshall, T. R. ,1993. Standard methods for the examination of dairy production. 16 th ed Am. Publ. Health Assoc., Inc ., Washington, D.C.
SAS, 2008. SAS/STAT software for PC. Release 9.2. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.
Park, Y.W., 2006. Goat milk. Chemistry and nutrition. In: Park, Y.W., Haenlein, G.F.W. (Eds.), Handbook of Milk of Non-bovine Mammals. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 34–58.
Lo´pez-Aliaga, I., M.J.M. Alfe´ rez, M. Barrionuevo, T. Nestares, M. R. Sanz Sampelayo, M.S. Campos ,2003. Study of nutritive utilization of protein and magnesium in rats with resection on the distal small intestine. Beneficial effect of goat milk. Journal of Dairy Science 86:2958–2966.
Marchesseau, S., E. Gastaldi, A. Lagaude et al., 1997. Infleuence of pH on protein interactions and microstructure of process cheese [J]. J Dairy Sci., 80:1483-1489.
Liu L., P.Howe, Y. Zhou, Z. XU, C. Hocart and R. Zhanga ,2000. Fatty acids and b-caroteine in Australian purslane (Porttulaca oleracea ) varieties . J. Chromatogr. A 893, 207-213.
Jeon, I. J., 1994.. Chemistry of dairy lipids. Review of free fatty acids. ACS Symp. Ser. 558:196–207.
Law, B. A.,1985. Advances in Microbiology and Biochemistry of Cheese and Fermented Milk. F. L. Davies, F. L. and B. Law, eds. Elsevier Applied Science, London, UK.
Urbach, G. ,1997. The flavor of milk and dairy products: II. Cheese: contribution of volatile compounds. Int. J. Food Technol. 50:79–89.
Davis, L. W. Stonehouse, and D. T. Loots, J. Mukuddem-Petersen, F. Van der Westhuizen, S. J. Hanekom and J. C. Jerling, 2007. The effect of high walnut and cashew nut diets on the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome. Eur. J. Nut. 46: 155-164.
Simopoulos, A. p.,2004. Omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acid ratio and chronic diseases. Food Reviews International 20:77-90.
Raes, K. , S. Desmet, and D. Demeyer ,2004. Effect of dietary fatty acids on incorporation of long chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb beef and pork meat: a review. Animal Feed Sci. and Technology 113:199-221.
Khattab, R.Y., S. D. Arntfield and C. M. Nyachoti, 2009. Nutritional quality of legume seeds as affected by some physical treatments, part1: protein quality evaluation. LWT-Food Sci. and Technology.42: 1107-1112.
Ishihara, S., M. Nakauma, T. Funami, , S. Odake, , and K. Nishinari, 2011. Viscoelastic and fragmentation characters of model bolus from polysaccharide gels after instrumental mastication. Food Hydrocolloids, 25: 1210-1218
Oliveira, L. F., S. V. Borges, J. Nascimento, A. C. Cunha, T. B. Jesus and P. A. P. Pereira, 2009. Use banana Peel in the production of banana candy bulk-quality assessment. Food and Nutrition 20(40): 581-589.
Abd Rabow, F. H, A.M. Abd El Fattah, M.M. El sayed and A.G. Mohamed , 2005. Improved of nutritional value of processed cheese by using modified emulsifying salts. Egypt. J. Dairy sci. (33): 85 – 103.
Marina Bubonja-Sonje , Jasminka Giacometti and Maja Abram ,2011. Antioxidant and antilisterial activity of olive oil, cocoa and rosemary extract polyphenols. Food Chemistry 127: 1821–1827.
Saleem R. M., and N. A. Dosh ,2007. Inversion of local soft sheep’s cheese to hulloun cheese. Proc. 10 th Egyption Conference Dairy Sci., Technology. 443-449.
Williams, M. R., and R. Syson, 1984. The bacteriological quality of Cyprus cheese, Environmental Heath, 92:146.
Wollgast, J., and E. Anklam, 2000. Review on polyphenols in Theobroma cacao: Changes in composition during the manufacture of chocolate and methodology for identification and quantification. Food Research International, 33(6): 423–447.
Dixon, Richard, A. and L. Christopher ,1999. Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids-A Gold Mine for Metabolic Engineering. Trends in Plant Science, 4: 394-400.
Smullen, J., G. A. Koutsou, H. A. Foster, A. Zumbe, and D. M. Storey, 2007. The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans. Caries Research, 41(5):342–349.