Assessment of Mineral Deficiencies among Grazing Areas in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 44-48
Received: Dec. 11, 2013;
Published: Feb. 20, 2014
Views 3614 Downloads 261
Shisia K. Silvanus, Department of Chemistry, Laikipia University, Kenya
Ngure Veronica, Department of Biological Sciences, Laikipia University, Kenya
Nyambaka Hudson, Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, Kenya
Jumba Isaac, Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Oduor Fredrick, Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya
A study conducted in the major grazing areas of Uasin Gishu involved twenty-eight (28) soils, twenty-eight (28) forage and forty-two (42) serum samples collected in six divisions at different sites. The purpose of the study was to determine the macro-and trace elements in soils, forages and animal serum, and compare to the recommended standards so as to identify those that could be presenting deficiencies in the area. Soils were extracted for available macro-minerals; Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg) and trace elements; Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn; the forage samples were assayed for the same elements plus phosphorus as total concentration on dry matter (DM) basis while blood serum was analyzed for the same forage elements plus molybdenum (Mo). Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and UV/visible spectrophotometer were used to analyze the metal elements and molybdenum respectively. Soil and Forage analysis of samples from southern region including Kesses and Ainabkoi revealed lower levels in both macro and trace elements analyzed. Serum samples from grazing areas situated in southern region revealed similar deficiencies in most minerals. The factors responsible for the variations as soil pH, forage species and cattle breed were investigated using correlation analysis.
Shisia K. Silvanus,
Assessment of Mineral Deficiencies among Grazing Areas in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2014, pp. 44-48.
Z. I. Khan, A. Hussain, M. Ashraf and L.R. McDowell. (2006). Mineral Status of Soil and Forages in South Western Punjab, Pakistan. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 19: 1139-1147.
M. S. Bhat, M. Shaheen, R. Zaman and A. Muhee (2011): Mineral Inter-relationship among Soil, forage and Dairy cattle in Kashmir, India. Vet. World, 2011, Vol.4(12):550-553 RESEARCH
NRC, National research council, (2001): Nutrient requirements of domestic animals. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th Rev. Ed.Natl. Academy of sciences. Washington, DC
L.W. Greene (2000): Designing mineral supplementation of forage programs for beef cattle. J ANIM SCI 2000, 77:1-9.
E. J. Underwood, (1981): The mineral nutrition of livestock. 2nd Ed. Commonw. Agric. Bur. London
A. H. Ekeocha and P. Fakolade (2012): Studies on the Physicochemical and Mineral Profile of Lactating West African Dwarf Ewe fed Mexican Sunflower Leaf Meal based Diets . J Rec Adv 2012, Agri 1(4): 146-156
M.A. Grusak and Dellapenna (1999). Improving the nutrient composition of plants to enhance human nutrition and health.Annu.Rev.Plant Physiol.Mol.Biol.,50:133-161.
J. E. Sprinkle, S. P. Cuneo, H. M. Frederick, R. M. Enns, D. W. Schafer, G. E. Carstens, S. B. Daugherty, T. H. Noon, B. M. Rickert and C. Reggiardo (2006): Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles; J ANIM SCI, 84:1439-1453.
I.O. Jumba, N.F. Suttle, E.O Hunter and S.O. Wandiga (1995a). Effects of soil origin mineral composition and herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the mount Elgon region of Kenya. I. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur. Tropical Grasslands, 29, 40-46.
O.Jumba , N.F. Suttle ,E.O.Hunter and S.O. Wandiga (1995b): Effects of soil origin, mineral composition and herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in mount Elgon region of Kenya. I. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur. Tropical Grasslands, 29, 40-46.
Z.I. Khan, M. Ashraf, A. Hussain and L.R. McDowell (2005). Seasonal variation of trace elements in a semiarid veld pasture. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 37:1471-1484.
N.F. Suttle, (1988). Predicting the risk of mineral deficiencies in grazing animals. S. Afri. J. Anim.Sci. 18(1). Pp 15-21.
Ndebele, N. J.P. Mtimuni, I.D.T. Mpofu, S. Makuza and P. Mumba (2005). The status of selected minerals in soils, forage and Beef Cattle tissues in a semi-arid region of Zimbabwe. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37: 381-393.
B. Dumont, J. P. Garel, C. Ginane, F. Decuq, A. Farruggia, P. Pradel, C. Rigolot and M. Petit (2007): Effect of cattle grazing a species-rich mountain pasture under different stocking rates on the dynamics of diet selection and sward structure. Animal , 1:7, pp 1042–1052 & The Animal Consortium 2007, doi: 10.1017/S1751731107000250
P.R. Hesse (1971). A text of soil chemical analysis. John Murray Ltd.London
F. D. O. Oduor (2002), Identification of the mineral deficiencies on soils, forages and animal tissues as constraints to cattle production in Mt. Elgon region of western Kenya. PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi
T. Tamada (2003). An indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of silicon in serum, whole blood and erythrocytes. Anal Sci. 2003 Sep;19(9):1291-6.
Z. I. Khan, M. Ashraf, I. Javed and S. Ermidou-Pollet (2007): Transfer of sodium from soil and forage to sheep and goats grazing in a semiarid region of Pakistan. Influence of the seasons. Trace Elements and Electrolytes, 24:49-54.
R. G. D. Steel and J.H. Torrie (1986). Principles and Procedures of Statistics, 2nd Ed. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York: pp. 336-354.
R. D. Rhue and G. Kidder (1983). Analytical procedures used by the IFAS extension soil testing laboratory and the interpretation of the results. Gainesville: Soil Sci. Dept., University of Florida.
L. R. McDowell, J.H. Conrad, and F. Hembrey (1993). Mineral for grazing ruminants in tropical regions. 2nd Ed. Animal science department, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
M.Y. Ashraf, K. Akhtar, G. Sarwar and M. Ashraf (2005). Role of rooting system in salt tolerance potential of different guar accessions. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 25: 243-249.