Applying Margaret Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness to Psychosocial Nursing Care of HIV Infected Patients in Kenya
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 6-11
Received: Sep. 30, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 14, 2014; Published: Nov. 3, 2014
Views 9376      Downloads 1353
Kamau Simon Macharia, University of Kabianga, Department of Nursing Sciences, P. O. Box 5, Kapkatet, 20214 Kenya
Rotich Rose Jelagat, University of Kabianga, Department of Nursing Sciences, P. O. Box 5, Kapkatet, 20214 Kenya
Mwembe David Juma, Kenya Medical Training College, Kapkatet Campus, Department of Nursing Sciences, P .O. Box 35, Kapkatet, 20214, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
Margaret Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness is considered a grand nursing theory, she described a process of becoming more of oneself, of finding greater meaning in life, and of reaching new dimensions of connectedness with other people and the world. Nurses in Kenya have mostly used the psychosocial-medical model to nurse HIV infected patients which fails to answer many of the nursing concerns and reduces their autonomy in carrying out nursing care. Newman’s theory proposed that: Health is not lack of illness, or a process to become healthy from being ill, but it instead the expansion of consciousness as a result of choices made within the context of patterns of behavior. Methodology: This mini review was an evolving emergent design. Slightly adapted ‘Advanced Theory in Nursing’ coursework materials were used. The greatest resource were referrals to links and hints as offered by those who got interested in the study. A best case scenario is appended. Conclusion: Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness is therefore a generic tool applicable to guide psychosocial nursing care of clients infected with HIV. It would be a great resource with a potential to evidence based nursing care. It would provide a basis for several case studies. Nurses find more fulfilment in their work by utilizing a nursing theory.
HIV, AIDS, Margaret Newman, Health as Expanding Consciousness, Psychosocial, Walter Reeds Project, Kenyan Nurses, Nursing Theory
To cite this article
Kamau Simon Macharia, Rotich Rose Jelagat, Mwembe David Juma, Applying Margaret Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness to Psychosocial Nursing Care of HIV Infected Patients in Kenya, American Journal of Nursing Science. Special Issue: Mental Health Care: Aspects, Challenges and Perspectives. Vol. 4, No. 2-1, 2015, pp. 6-11. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.s.2015040201.12
Govender R. and Schlebusch L. Hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-positive persons. South African Journal of Psychiatry 2012; 18; No 1
Alligood, M. R. Nursing theorists and their work. Elsevier, Mosby 2014: 442-463.
Gordon, Parker, and Jester “Theories of nursing practice: Lecture notes and presentations”. Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning 2001. Retrieved on 12th March 2014.
Halie B. Affordability of Home-Based Care for HIV/AIDS. South Africa Medical Journal 2000; 90 (7): 690-691.
Leah Curtin. “Performance edge”. Nursing Management1989; Vol. 20(6). Retrieved from:
Mead, N., & Bower, P. “Patient-centeredness: A conceptual framework and review of the empirical literature”. Social Science and Medicine 2000; Vol. 51: 1087-1110.
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.), Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins 2012.
Newman, M. “Newman's Health as Expanding Consciousness” 2013. Retrieved:
Newman, M. Transforming presence. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis. 2008.
Newman, M. Health as expanding consciousness. National League of Nursing. New York 1994. Retrieved:
Lecture notes and presentations by Sage Mehew et al., (student presenters and discussants) to Geer Betty PhD. (2014, Spring Semester).NURS 6012: Advanced Theory in Nursing. University of Colorado Denver, USA.
Kenya AIDs Indicator Survey- KAIS, 2014.
Parker, M. & Smith, M. Nursing theories and nursing practice (3rd ed.). F. A. Davis Company. Philadelphia 2010, p290-313.
Born Free. Initiative to end mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Africa by December 31st, 2015. (2014). Retrieved:,
Living with purpose | wamakeri purpose/ Assumpta Wagura's Diary, Wednesday Daily Nation.
Patients Like Me:
Home Page
Yang, A., Xiong, D., Vang, E., & Pharris, M. Hmong American women living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2009; 41, 139–148.
Papathanasiou I., Kourkouta L., Sklavou M. Holistic Nursing Care: Theories and Perspectives. American Journal of Nursing Science 2013; 2(1): 1-5.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186