Smoking is Associated with Osteoporosis Development in Primary Care Population
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 96-101
Received: Jan. 14, 2015; Accepted: Jan. 26, 2015; Published: Mar. 5, 2015
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Authors
Kleisiaris F. Christos , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Plaiti E. Maria , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Papathanasiou V. Ioanna , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Thessaly, Larisa, Greece
Papaioannou Polina , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Kastrinakis Ioannis , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Diakantoni Sofia , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Fradelos Evangelos , 3rd Psychiatric Department, State Mental Hospital of Attica “Daphne”, Athens, Greece
Kourkouta Lamprini , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
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Abstract
Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disease of bones and it has been associated with various risk factors such as female gender, advanced age and smoking habit. However, evidence has shown that the true figures between osteoporosis and smoking are conflicted. Aim: This study was aimed to screen individuals for potential risk factors related to osteoporosis and to assess whether smoking habit is associated with osteoporosis development in Primary care population aged 45 years and over. Materials and Methods: A screening program for osteoporosis was conducted in two Primary care settings in the island of Crete – Greece, during a 3-month period (April to June 2013). We studied 400 participants aged 45 years old and over for risk-factors associated with osteoporosis development using the ONE Minute Osteoporosis Risk Test. Participants were screened for to 19 risk-factors related to osteoporosis such as fracture, diagnosis of Thyroid, Alcohol Consumption and smoking responding to Yes or No. Statistically, chi square and/or Variance analysis were used for the descriptive characteristics of the study participants and the significance of association among demographic characteristics. The method of variance analysis was applied to determine associations between risk factors and demographic characteristics. Bivariate associations were described using Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). P-values≤0.05 was considered significant using the SPSS version 21.0. Results: The mean age of participants (50% males) was 61.94 ± 11.6. Males were smoked significantly more often (75.5% vs. 43%, p<0.001) than females and, current smokers both females (OR=1.12; 95%CI: 0.25-1.99, p=0.012) and, males (OR=0.85; 95%CI: 0.10-1.59, p=0.027) were significantly more likely to report an increased number of risk-factors for osteoporosis compared to never smokers. We also found that obese participants were less likely to report an increased number of risk-factors (OR=-1.87; 95%CI: -3.54, -0.20, p=0.029) compared to reference category suggesting that obesity was a protective factor for osteoporosis, but this association was significant only for males. Conclusion: Although a number of risk-factors did not differ among non-smokers, former and current smokers, current smokers had a greater likelihood of reporting a number of risk-factors related to osteoporosis, suggesting that smoking is an important risk factor for osteoporosis development.
Keywords
Osteoporosis, Female Gender, Age, Smoking, Bone Fracture
To cite this article
Kleisiaris F. Christos , Plaiti E. Maria , Papathanasiou V. Ioanna , Papaioannou Polina , Kastrinakis Ioannis , Diakantoni Sofia , Fradelos Evangelos , Kourkouta Lamprini , Smoking is Associated with Osteoporosis Development in Primary Care Population, American Journal of Nursing Science. Special Issue:Mental Health Care: Aspects, Challenges and Perspectives. Vol. 4, No. 2-1, 2015, pp. 96-101. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.s.2015040201.28
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