Children with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome at School
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 37-44
Received: Nov. 29, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 4, 2014; Published: Dec. 30, 2014
Views 3492      Downloads 149
Authors
Spyridoula Laschou, Primary Education department, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Maria Dermanopoulou, ICU, General Hospital Of Trikala, Trikala, Greece
Alexandra Marmangelou, Primary Education department, Florina, Greece
Maria Papaspyrou, ICU, General Hospital Of Trikala, Trikala, Greece
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by the presence of multiple kinetic and vocal tics. Tics are sudden, rapid, repetitive, pointless, arrhythmic, stereotyped kinetic or vocal muscle twitches. It usually occurs before puberty and it is more often in boys than in girls, at a rate 4-6 / 1000. Although it doesn’t affect the physical health of the patient, it creates several social problems. Most of the children who deal with Tourette syndrome have normal intelligence and brain anatomy. Purpose: this study is the early identification of children who are suffering with Tourette syndrome as a result of their clinical assessment and information of children and their families in an effort to understand the nature of this syndrome.Method:an extensive search for articles and publications in Greek and international literature was performed. Furthermore, search performed also in the electronic databases "pubmed" and "cinahl". Results: Depending on the severity of convulsive movements and if learning difficulties are present or not, the suffering student may face serious problems in school that may affect his performance. A coordinated effort by health professionals, parents and teachers who are addressing them can prevent the devastating consequences of the syndrome in childhood and later in adult life.It is helpful for the teacher to be aware of the syndrome and to encourage children that are suffering by the syndrome, to courses and protect them from being teased by their classmates. Conclusions: Parents should inform teachers about the syndrome and teachers in turn should encourage the child in his courses and protect it so in an effort to avoid isolation or aggression. Those children are usually able to attend an ordinary school unless there is a coexistence of learning disabilities or Attention-Deficit Disorder then special handling by the teacher is needed as well as tolerance, patience, and the assessment of the student should be under indulgence always in collaboration with parents and a child psychiatrist .
Keywords
Tourette Syndrome, Learning Difficulties, Special Education, School Nurse
To cite this article
Spyridoula Laschou, Maria Dermanopoulou, Alexandra Marmangelou, Maria Papaspyrou, Children with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome at School, American Journal of Nursing Science. Special Issue:Mental Health Care: Aspects, Challenges and Perspectives. Vol. 4, No. 2-1, 2015, pp. 37-44. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.s.2015040201.18
References
[1]
Ygor Ferra˜o, M.D. M.Sc., James F. Leckman, M.D., Et All Tic Disorders: Some Key Issues For Dsm-V John T. Walkup, M.D., Depression And Anxiety. 2010;27:600–610
[2]
Leckman, J.F., Tourette’s Syndrome. Lancet.2002; 360:1577–1586
[3]
Mueller, S.C., Jackson, G.M., Et All, Enhanced Cognitive Control In Young People With Tourette’s Syndrome. Curr. Biol.2006;16:570–573.
[4]
Jung, J., Jackson, S.R., Nam, K., Hollis, C., And Jackson, G.M. Enhanced Saccadic Control In Young People With Tourette Syndrome Despite Slowed Pro-Saccades. J. Neuropsychol. 2014.
[5]
Scharf J.M., Miller, L.L., Mathews, C.A., Ben-Shlomo, Y. Prevalence Of Tourette Syndrome And Chronic Tics In The Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study Of Parents And Children Cohort. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.2012;51(2):192-201
[6]
Robertson Mm, Stern Js Tic Disorders: New Developments In Tourette Syndrome And Related Disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 1998;11:373–380
[7]
The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium For Genetics. A Complete Genome Screen In Sib Pairs Affected By Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome. Am. J. Hum. Genet.1999; 65:1428–1436
[8]
Amelia Draper,1 Mary C. Stephenson, ., Et All., Increased Gaba Contributes To Enhanced Control Over Motor Excitability In Tourette Syndrome. Current Biology.2014; 24, 2343–2347
[9]
Mejia Ni, Jankovic J.,"Secondary Tic And Tourettism". Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2005;27(1):11–17
[10]
Scahill, M. Schwab-Stone., Epidemiology Of Adhd In School-Age Children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2000; 9 : 541–555
[11]
G. Polanczyk, M.S. De Lima, B.L. Horta, J. Biederman, L.A. Rohde., The Worldwide Prevalence Of Adhd: A Systematic Review And Metaregression Analysis., Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164: 942–948
[12]
Feiz,Pa, Emamipour,S., A Survey On Prevalence Rate Of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Elementary School Students (6-7 Years Old) In Tehran) Procedia - Social And Behavioral Sciences.2013;84:1732 – 1735
[13]
Brown Rt, Et All, Prevalence And Assessment Of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder In Primary Care Settings. Pediatrics.2001;107(3):1-11
[14]
David E. Comings Et All, A Controlled Study Of Tourette Syndrome. I. Attention-Deficit Disorder, Learning Disorders, And School Problems Department Of Medical Genetics, City Of Hope National Medical Center, And Tprivate Practice, Duarte, Ca. 1987. Am. J. Hum. Genet; 41:701-741
[15]
Gkonela E. Autisms. Oddyseas Pub.2006 Athens
[16]
Peeters, T. Autism. From Theoretical Understanding To Educational Interventions. Trans.Kalomoiris G. Hellenic Company For The Protection Of People With Autism. 2000 Athens
[17]
Stamatis,., Fortified Silence, Bridges Communications With The Autistic Child, Picture- Treatment - Rehabilitation. Glaros. 1987 Athens
[18]
Pantelidou S. Learning Difficulties And Educational Act What And Why. Pedio Pub. 2011 Athens.
[19]
Soulis G., Pedagogical Integration. From "School Segregation" In A "School For All" Typothito, 2002 Athens,.
[20]
Linday, G., Educational Psychology And The Effectiveness Of Inclusion/Mainstreaming, British Journal Of Educational Psychology. 2007; 77:1-29.
[21]
Dendaki A. Learning Difficulties Addh. 2009 Athens.
[22]
Jennifer Creek., Lesley Lougher., Occupational Therapy And Mental Health Mprint. 2008 Churchill Livingstone.
[23]
Kewley, G. Diagnosing Adhd In Children Depends On A Set Of Strict Criteria. 2011
[24]
Stanley Paul David P. Orchanian Pocket., Guide To Assessment In Occupational Therapy, Thomson, Delmar Learning. 2003 America
[25]
Atkinson. S., Introduction To Hilgard. Psychology. Papazisis 2003 Athens.
[26]
Jordan, R. & Powell, S. Understanding And Teaching Children With Autism. Mtf. Kaliva E. Greek Society For The Protection Of Autistic Persons. 2000. Athens
[27]
Htmhttp://Www.Encephalos.Gr/Full/44-2-06g.Htm
[28]
Kourkouta L, Rarra A, Fradelos E., Stigma and Children with Schizophrenia in School, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.2014 ;2:152-156.
[29]
Kourkouta L, Papathanasiou I, Rarra A, Kleisiaris Ch. The Impacts of Childhood Epilepsy in School Children. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports. 2014; 3(13):1798-1804.
[30]
Am J Hum Genet. 1987. 41(5): 701–741.
[31]
Malikiosi- Loizou., Counseling Psychology., Hellinic Letters, 1998. Athens
[32]
Kvalsund R, Growth As Self-Actualization: A Critical Approach To The Organismic Metaphor In Carl Rogers' Counseling Theory. 2003
[33]
Fradelos E, Staikos Ch, The contribution of active listening in developing therapeutic relationship in mental Health practice. Scientific Chronicles.2013;18(4)213-219
[34]
Kourkouta L, Papathanasiou IV. Communication in Nursing Practice . Mater Sociomed. 2014; 26(1): 65-67.
[35]
Singer H.S., "Tourette Syndrome And Other Tic Disorders". Handb Clin Neurol., 2011; 100:641–57
[36]
Also See Singer Hs., "Tourette's Syndrome: From Behaviour To Biology". Lancet Neurol. 2005;4(3):149–59
[37]
Tourette Syndrome: Frequently Asked Questions. Tourette Syndrome Association. Retrieved On December 29, 2011.
[38]
Scahill L, Erenberg G, Et All. Tourette Syndrome Association Medical Advisory Board: Practice Committee. "Contemporary Assessment And Pharmacotherapy Of Tourette Syndrome" . Neurorx. 2006;3 (2):192–206
[39]
Denckla M.B. "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Childhood Co-Morbidity That Most Influences The Disability Burden In Tourette Syndrome". Adv Neurol. 2006;99:17–21
[40]
Http://Www.Tourettes-Action.Org.Uk/
[41]
Postgraduate Medicine Journal. 2005; 81(951):12–19
[42]
Zinner S.H. "Tourette Disorder". Pediatr Rev. 2000;21(11):372–83
[43]
Woods Dw, Himle Mb, Conelea Ca. "Behavior Therapy: Other Interventions For Tic Disorders". Adv Neurol. 2006;99:234–40
[44]
Stern, J.S, Burza, S, Robertson, M.M., "Gilles De La Tourette's Syndrome And Its Impact In The Uk
[45]
"Tourette Syndrome, Associated Conditions And The Complexities Of Treatment" Brain. 2000. 123 Pt 3:425–62. Retrieved On January 25, 2000
[46]
Coffey, B.J., Shechter, R.L., "Treatment Of Co-Morbid Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Mood, And Anxiety Disorders". Adv Neurol. 2006; 99:208–21
[47]
Himle, M.B., Woods, D.W., Piacentini, J.C., Walku, J.T., "Brief Review Of Habit Reversal Training For Tourette Syndrome". J Child Neurol. 2006 ; 21(8):719–25
[48]
Freeman, R.D., Tourette Syndrome International Database Consortium. Tic Disorders and Adhd: Answers from A World-Wide Clinical Dataset On Tourette Syndrome. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 ; 16 Suppl 1:15-23
[49]
Alexandropoulou Et All, School Health Services In Greece The Position Of School Nurse. Nursing 2006;45 (3): 308-314
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186