Gonad Protection During Paediatric Abdomen and Pelvic X-Ray Examinations
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, May 2015, Pages: 25-30
Received: Jan. 30, 2015;
Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015;
Published: Mar. 21, 2015
Views 3451 Downloads 228
Kyei K. A., Department of Radiography, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana
Antwi W. K., Department of Radiography, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana
Follow on us
Background: Evidence suggests that children are more susceptible to radiation risks or hazards. In particular, their gonads are more sensitive to the effects of radiation, especially at or below reproductive age. Protecting the gonads of children and adults is of particular importance to the imaging. Aim: To investigate level of the use of gonad protection during paediatric abdomen and pelvic X-ray examinations in the Accra metropolis. Method: A quantitative, descriptive and cross sectional survey were applied where systematic random sampling was used to select five hospitals from Accra Metropolis (Ghana) that provided radiological services and had permanent radiographers. Three different tools were used in the study for data collection: observation, questionnaire and evaluation of pediatric radiographs of abdomen and pelvis. Results: A total of 44 out of 46 Radiographers recruited in five hospitals completed the questionnaire and were also involved in the observational study. The study achieved a 95.65% response rate. It was identified that 46% (n=20) of the radiographers reported they had no gonad shields in their department. Few departments (13%) had no shields at all and 39% (n=17) of the respondents applied gonad shields only on male sexes. Although there were no laid down policies in the departments surveyed 55% of the respondents reported they were aware of policies regarding the use of gonad shields. Conclusion: It appears that there are no standardised national policies on radiation protection in general for hospitals to follow and so it is absent in the imaging departments. This has affected the availability of gonad shields and adherence to its application to protect patients. To improve quality diagnostic imaging service, there is the urgent need for management to pay serious attention to patient protection especially children against unnecessary exposure to ionising radiation during X-ray procedures. Hospital management must communicate the relevant policies and local rules concerning radiation protection in particular the use of gonad shield to protect children.
Pediatrics Protection, Gonad Shields, Contact and Shadow Shields
To cite this article
Kyei K. A.,
Antwi W. K.,
Gonad Protection During Paediatric Abdomen and Pelvic X-Ray Examinations, Clinical Medicine Research. Special Issue: Radiographic Practice Situation in a Developing Country.
Vol. 4, No. 3-1,
2015, pp. 25-30.
Cook, J. V. (2001) Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance in Pediatrics Radiography. The British Institute of Radiology, (13):229-238
Gul A, Zafar M and MaffulIi N (2005) Gonadal Shields in Pelvic Radiographs in Paediatrics Patients, Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Disease.
Kettunen, A (2004) Radiation Dose and Radiation Risk to the Foetus and New Borns. PP13-15.STUK-A204: Finland
Abella, H. A. (2008) Radiation Dose Awareness Leads to More Paediatric Referral for Ultrasound and MRI. Diagnostic Imaging.com.
Ocran, M (2008) Attitude of Radiographers in the Greater Accra Region towards Immobilization and Restraint of Paediatric Patients During X-ray Examination. School of Allied Health Sciences.
Saunder, W.B (2001) Fundamentals of Paediatric Radiology. www.answers .com/topic/paediatric. Accessed on: 28/04/14,
United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation. (2000) Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Volume 1, Report to the general assembly. New York
Wilson D.J. and Allen G.M. (2010) Paediatric Imaging, children orthopaedics and fractures, pages 49-64
Minigh J (2005) Peadiatric Radiation Exposure. Radiologic Technology, 76 (5): 365-375
Sim J., Zadnik M.G and Radloff A (2002) Lifelong Learning in Medical Radiation Science: Stakeholders’ Views. The Radiographer 49 (1): 13-17.