A Seven Year Review of the Seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in a Hospital Based Blood Bank in Ibadan, Nigeria
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 1-8
Received: Jan. 5, 2017;
Accepted: Jan. 19, 2017;
Published: Feb. 23, 2017
Views 3476 Downloads 168
Foluke Atinuke Fasola, Department of Haematology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Patricia Adedoyin Fadimu, Department of Haematology, Blood Bank, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Victoria Oluwabunmi Akpan, Department of Haematology, Blood Bank, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Africa has the highest prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections. The World Health Organization recommends universal and quality-controlled screening of blood donations for the major transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs): human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis. Therefore a retrospective study was conducted to assess the effect of strategies in our blood bank to improve blood safety on the seroprevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis infections among the donors over a seven year period. Existing data in the blood bank was used to determine number of the blood donors who were infected with HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis. The test methods used to screen the donors were identified. The trend of prevalence of the transfusion transmitted infections among the blood donors from 2009 to 2015 was also determine. A total of 41,445 blood donors were screened. Voluntary blood donors constituted 11.1% of the donor population. The overall seroprevalence rate for the TTI was 12.3%. The prevalence was highest for HBV (8.5%) followed by HIV (1.8%), HCV (1.4%) and least for syphilis (0.5%) respectively. The infections showed significant inter-year variation (p<.001). A decreasing trend was observed for HBV among the blood donors while increase in prevalence of HIV, HCV and syphilis was observed from 2012 to 2014 and decreased in 2015. The prevalence of syphilis has risen from 0% in 2009 to 0.9% in 2015. The seroprevalence for TTI is high but is less compared to report from a previous study in same blood bank. The increasing infection rate for syphilis and sporadic surges in rates for HIV, HCV may suggest that the selection criteria is not effectively eliminating blood donors with risky lifestyle. There is need to educate the blood donors on avoiding risky lifestyle while also intensifying voluntary blood donor motivation strategy and increase community surveillance of the infections.
Foluke Atinuke Fasola,
Patricia Adedoyin Fadimu,
Victoria Oluwabunmi Akpan,
A Seven Year Review of the Seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in a Hospital Based Blood Bank in Ibadan, Nigeria, Clinical Medicine Research.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2017, pp. 1-8.
Bihl F, Castelli D, Marincola F, et al (2007). Transfusion-transmitted infections. J Transl Med 5: 25 doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-5-25.
Nagalo B. M, Bisseye C, Sanou M, et al (2012). Seroprevalence and incidence of transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases among blood donors from regional blood transfusion centres in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Trop Med Int Health 17 (2):247-53.
Fasola F. A, Kotila T. R, Akinyemi J. O (2008). Trends in Transfusion-Transmitted Viral Infections in Ibadan, Nigeria. Intervirology; 51: 427-31.
Motayo B. O, Faneye A. O, Udo U. A, et al (2015). Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI), in first time blood donors in Abeokuta, Nigeria. African Health Sciences; 15 (1): 19-24.
Buseri F. I, Muhibi M. A, Jeremiah Z. A (2009). Sero-epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Osogbo, south-west Nigeria. Blood Transfus; 7: 293-9.
Dirisu J. O, Alli T. O, Adegoke A. O, et al (2011). A Survey of prevalence of serum antibodies to human immunodeficiency deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among blood donors. N Am J Med Sci.; 3 (1): 35–8.
Fasola F. A, Otegbayo J. A (2002). Post Transfusion Viral Hepatitis in Sickle Cell Anaemia: Retrospective-Prospective Analysis. Journal of Clinical Practices; 5 (1): 16 – 19.
Amiwero C, Prescott R. J, Okuku A. G, et al (2013). Seroprevalence transfusion transmissible infections in blood donors attending the Federal Medical center, Bida. Int. J Mod Biol Res.; 1: 1-7.
Shittu A. O, Olawumi H. O, Adewuyi J. O (2014). Pre-donation screening of blood for transfusion transmissible infections: the gains and the pains-experience at a resource limited blood bank. Ghana Medical Journal; 48 (3): 158-62.
Osaro E, Mohammed N, Zama I, et al (2014). Prevalence of p24 antigen among a cohort of HIV antibody negative blood donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria - the question of safety of blood transfusion in Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 18: 174 doi:10.11604/pamj..18.174.3449.
Fasola F. A, Kotila T. R, Akinyemi J. O (2008). Trends in Transfusion transmitted infections from 2001 to 2006 in Ibadan, Nigeria. Intervirol; 51: 427-431.
Odaibo G. N, Taiwo A, Aken'Ova Y. A, et al (2008). Detection of HIV antigen and cDNA among antibody-negative blood samples in Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 102 (3): 284-7.
Salawu L, Bolarinwa R. A, Adegunloye A. B, et al (2010). HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL in blood donors: Prevalence and trends in the last three and a half years in a tertiary health care facility in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Int. J. Med. Med. Sci.; 2 (11): 335 - 41.
Lieshout-Krikke R. W, Domanovic D, De Kort W, et al (2016). Selection strategies for newly registered blood donors in European countries. Blood Transfus.; 27: 1-7.
Pruett C. R, Vermeulen M, Zacharias P, et al (2015). The use of rapid diagnostic tests for transfusion infectious screening in Africa: a literature review. Transfus Med Rev.; 29 (1): 35-44.
Orkuma J. A, Egesie J. O, Banwat E. B, et al (2014). HIV screening in blood donors: rapid diagnostic test versus enhanced ELISA. Niger J Med.; 23 (3): 192-200.
Mohammed Y, Bekele A (2016). Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia: retrospective 4 years study. BMC Res Notes.; 9: 129- 35.
Abate M, Wolde T (2016). Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Syphilis among Blood Donors at Jigjiga Blood Bank, Eastern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci.; 26 (2): 153–60.
Stokx J, Gillet P, De Weggheleire A, et al (2011). Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre-donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique. BMC Infectious Diseases; 11: 1-8.
Walana W, Ahiaba S, Hokey P, et al (2014). Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among Blood Donors in the Kintampo Municipal Hospital, Ghana. British Microbiology Research Journal 4 (12): 1491-499.
Uzun B, Gungor S, Demirci M (2013). Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors in western part of Turkey: a six-year study. Transfus Apher Science. 49 (3): 511–15.
Sharma DC, Rai S, Bharat S, et al (2014). Transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of Medical College of Gwalior: A 5 year study. IBRR 2 (5): 235-46.
Yang S, Jiao D, Liu C, et al (2016). Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections among blood donors at Shiyan, Central China BMC Infect Dis. 16: 531. Published online 2016 Oct 1. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1845-z.
Roger M. A. M, Rhode J. M, Blumberg N (2016). Haemovigilance of reactions associated with red blood cell transfusion: comparison across 17 countries. Vox Sang. 110 (3): 266-77.
Awofala A. A, Ogundele O. E, (2016). HIV epidemiology in Nigeria. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.03.006. 9 April.
Ajayi B. B, Moses A. E, Ezimah A. C. U, et al (2007). HIV Prevalence among Blood Donors in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria. International Journal of Virology 3 (1): 35-40.
Farhadpour F, Taherkhani R, Tajbakhsh S, et al (2016). Prevalence and Trends of Transmissible Viral Infections among Blood Donors in South of Iran: An Eleven-Year Retrospective Study. PLoS One 11 (6): e0157615. Doi:10:1371/journal pone. 0157615. eCollecton 2016.
Nebie KY, Olinger CM, Kafando E, et al (2007). Lack of knowledge among blood donors in Burkina Faso (West Africa); potential obstacle to transfusion security. Transfus Clin. Biol. 14: 446-52.
Allain J. P, Sarkadie F, Asenso-Mensah K, et al (2009). Relative safety of first-time volunteer and replacement donors in West Africa. Transfusion. 50: 340-3.
Barreto C. C, Sabino E. C, Gonocalez T. T, et al (2005). Prevalence incidence and residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus among community and replacement first-time blood donors in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Transfusion. 45: 1709-14.
Murphy E, Sanchez-Guerrero S. A, Valiente-Banuet L, et al (2010). Demographic characteristics and infectious disease markers in blood in the Mexico-US border region (Abstract). Vox Sang. 99: 2.
Grabarczyk P, Kopacz A, Sulkowska E, et al (2015). Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland. Przegl Epidemiol. 69 (3): 473-7, 591-5.
Offergeld R, Ritter S, Hamouda O (2012). [HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis surveillance among blood donors in Germany 2008-2010] Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 55: 907–13.
Mora N, Adams WH, Kliethermes S, et al (2016). A Synthesis of Hepatitis C prevalence estimates in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2000-2013. BMC Infect Dis. Jun 13; 16: 283. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1584-1.
Daw MA, Shabash A, El-Bouzedi A, et al (2016). Libyan Study Group of Hepatitis and HIV. Modelling the prevalence of hepatitis C virus amongst blood donors in Libya: An investigation of providing a preventive strategy. World J Virol. 5 (1): 14-22.
Sheikh MY, Atla PR, Ameer A, et al (2013). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Infections among Healthy Volunteer Blood Donors in the Central California Valley. Gut and Liver, 7 (1): 66-73.
Glynn S. A, Kleinman S. H, Schreiber G. B, et al (2000). Trends in incidence and prevalence of major transfusion-transmissible viral infections in US blood donors, 1991 to 1996. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS). JAMA. 284 (2): 229-35.
Kim M. J, Park Q, Min H. K, et al (2012). Residual risk of transfusion – transmitted infection with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus in Korea from 2000 through 2010. BMC Infectious Diseases 12:160 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/12/160.
Adegoke A. O, Akanni O, Dirisu J (2011). Risk of transfusion-transmitted syphilis in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. N Am J Med Sci. 3 (2): 78–81.
Chikwem J, Mohammed I, Okara G, et al (1997). Prevalence of transmissible blood infections among blood donors at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 74 (4): 213–16.
Birhaneselassie M (2016). Prevalence of Transfusion-Transmissible Infections in Donors to an Ethiopian Blood Bank Between 2009 and 2013 and Donation Factors That Would Improve the Safety of the Blood Supply in Underdeveloped Countries. Lab Med. 47 (2): 134-9.
Keshvari M, Sharafi H, Alavian S. M, et al (2015). Prevalence and trends of transfusion-transmitted infections among blood donors in Tehran, Iran from 2008 to 2013. Transfus Apher Sci. 53 (1): 38-47.
Sultan S, Murad S, Irfan SM, et al (2016). Trends of Venereal Infections among Healthy Blood Donors at Karachi. Arch Iran Med. 19 (3): 192-6.
Bloch E. M, Vermulen M, Murphy E (2012). Blood Transfusion Safety in Africa: A Literature Review of Infectious Disease and Organizational Challenges. Transfus Med. Rev. 26 (2): 164-80.
Owusu-Ofori A. K, Parry C. M, Bates I (2011).Transfusion transmitted syphilis in teaching hospital, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Disease. (Letter) 17 (11): 2080-81.