Prevalence of Anaemia in Pregnancy Among Women Visiting Antenatal Clinic in Bingham University Teaching Hospital Jos, Nigeria
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 5, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 52-62
Received: May 6, 2016;
Accepted: May 18, 2016;
Published: May 30, 2016
Views 6638 Downloads 117
Bassi Amos Paul, Dept. of Community Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Idoko Lucy, Dept. of Community Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Dibigbo-Ibeaji Ndudi Mary, Dept. of Haematology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Adeniyi Olusegun Godwin, Dept. of Haematology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Ramyil Mamzhi-Crown Seljul, Dept. of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Ogundeko Timothy Olugbenga, Dept. of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Pisagih James Kurgnan, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Offiah Valeria Nneka, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Olorunfunmi Joshua Seye, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Amuta Wilson Ehi, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Alu Vivian Ojoma, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria
Ajala Ese Kate, Dept. of Laboratory Services, Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Olorundare Olufunke Olufunmilola, Dept. of Pests Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Nigeria
In developing countries such as Nigeria, anaemia in pregnancy is thought to be one of the most common problem affecting pregnant women accounting for a significant level of maternal morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy among women visiting Antenatal Clinic (ANC) in Bingham University Teaching Hospital (BHUTH). This is a cross sectional descriptive study conducted from August to September, 2015 on two hundred and thirty seven (237) women. A semi–structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic, obstetrics, and nutritional information from the respondent pregnant women who consented at each antenatal clinic days (Mondays and Thursdays). Packed cell volume was used to assess the level of anaemia in accordance to WHO guide lines. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was found to be 43.5%, amongst all women who were anaemic, 83%, 8.7% and 2% were found to have mild, moderate and severe anaemia respectively. However, 0.9%, 35%, 52% of these women were found to be in their first, second and third trimesters respectively. 61% were multi-parous women (para 2-4); 24.3% women had only two antenatal clinic visits, 66.2% women were within the age group of 34–39 years; 89.3% women had been taking balanced diet, while 89.3% women were on their routine drugs; 66.0% women used insecticide treated mosquito net; 66.0% women had taken anti-malarial prophylaxis. Reduced ANC visits and increasing age where significant factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. Prevalence of anaemia amongst pregnant women in BHUTH was 43.5%. The most common type of anaemia in this study is mild anaemia. However, the prevalence of anaemia was found to predominate amongst women in their third trimester. Increased maternal age and reduced number of antenatal care visits were statistically significant factors to be associated with anaemia in pregnancy.
Bassi Amos Paul,
Dibigbo-Ibeaji Ndudi Mary,
Adeniyi Olusegun Godwin,
Ramyil Mamzhi-Crown Seljul,
Ogundeko Timothy Olugbenga,
Pisagih James Kurgnan,
Offiah Valeria Nneka,
Olorunfunmi Joshua Seye,
Amuta Wilson Ehi,
Alu Vivian Ojoma,
Ajala Ese Kate,
Olorundare Olufunke Olufunmilola,
Prevalence of Anaemia in Pregnancy Among Women Visiting Antenatal Clinic in Bingham University Teaching Hospital Jos, Nigeria, Clinical Medicine Research.
Vol. 5, No. 3,
2016, pp. 52-62.
Nwizu E. N, Iliyasu S. A and Galadanci H. S (2011), African journal of Reproductive health; 15 (4); 33–41.
WHO, (2008). Worldwide Prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global Database on anaemia prevention in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 4, 18.
Muguleta M, Zelalem A, Meseret Alem, Banlaku Enawgaw (2013). Prevalence and predictors of maternal anaemia during pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. An institutional based cross-sectional study. Hindawi publishing Corporation Anaemia. Volume 2014, Article ID 108593, 9 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/108593.
World Health Organization (1992), The Prevalence of anaemia in women: a tabulation of available information. Geneva; WHO/MCH/MSM/92.2; 119–124.
World Health Organization (1993), prevention and management of severe anaemia in pregnancy; report of a technical working group Geneva; WHO/FHF/MSH/93-5.
Mohammed Y. G. and Emmanuel A. U (2013), The pattern of anaemia in Nothern Nigerian women. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 4 (8) pp. 319-323, Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14303/jmms.2013.097.
Harrison K. A. (2001). Anaemia in pregnancy, In; Maternity care in developing countries. John Carson, Harrison K. A. Stoffen Bergston (eds) RCOG press; 112 – 128
Stoltzfus R. J, Luke M, and Robert E. B (2004), Iron Defeciency Anaemia in Comparative qualification of health risk: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributed to Selected Major Risk Factors, edited by Majid Ezzati, Alan D. Lopez, Anthony Rodgers, and Christopher J. L. Murray, 163-209. Geneva, Switzerland; World Health Organization.
E McLean, M. Cogswell, I Egli, D. Wojdyla, and B DeBonist (2009). Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO, vitamin and mineral nutrition information system. 1993-2005. Public health nutrition, 12 (4): 444-454
Van Dan Broek, N. R, Rogerson S. J, Mhango C. G, Kambala B, White S. A, Molyneux M. E, (2000). Anaemia in pregnancy in southern Malawi: Prevalence and risk factors. British Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology; 107 (4): 445-51.
Baker S. J, De Maeyer EM (1979). nutritional anaemia; its understanding and control with special reference to the work of the World health Organisation. America Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 32: 368-417.
Macgregor, M. (1963). Maternal anaemia as a factor in prematurity and perinatal mortality, Scotish medical journal, 8: 134.
Scholl, T. O. and Hediger, M. L. (1994). Anaemia and as a factor in prematurity and perinatal mortality, Scottish medical Journal, 8: 134.
Bothwell T, Charlton R. (1981). Iron deficiency in women. Washington DC, Nutrition Foundation.
WHO/CDC (2008). Worldwide Prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global Database on anaemia, WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland.
Y. Balarajan, U Ramakrishan, E Ozaltin, A. H. Shankar, and S. V. Subramaniam (2011) Anaemia in low-income and middle income countries, The Lancet, Vol. 378, no 9809, pp. 2123-2135.
Matteli A. Donatu F, Shein A. (1994) Malaria and anaemia in pregnant women in urban zanzbar Tanzania. Ann Trop Med. Parasitol. 1994; 88: 475-483.
Bergsjo P, Seha AM, Ole Kingori N. (1996). Haemoglobin concentration in pregnant women; Experienced from Mohi Tanzania Acta. Obset Gynaecol. Scan; 75: 241-244.
Dejere Lelissa, Mathiyas Yilma, Weldesenbet Shewalem, Amanuel Abrana, Mesfin Worku, Henock Ambachew, Misganaw Birhaneselaise (2015). Prevalence of anaemia among women recieveing antenatal care at boditi health center; southern Ethiopia. Clinical Medicine Research. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, pp. 79-86. doi: 10.11648 j. cmr:20150403.14.
Liljestrand J, Bergstorm, Birgegard G. (1991). Anaemia in pregnancy in Mozabibique Trans R. Soc Trop. Med. Hyg; 83: 829-832.
Jackson DJ, Klee EB, Green SD, Mokili JB, Cutting WA. (1986) severe anaemia in pregnancy; a problem of primigravidae in rural Zaire. Trans R Soc Trop Med. Hyg, 1986; 80: 249-255.
Oladipo A. R; Falana A. O; Adegoke O; Sambo A; Kungu J, 2005 Prevalence of Anaemia Among pregnantWomen and its Determinants in Nothern Nigeria.
Robinson Chukwudi Onoh, Olisaemeka Paul Ezeona, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umerora, Toochukwu Joan Petrolina Onoh, Bonaventure Okechukwu Anozie, Azubuike Kanario Onyebu; (2014). Anaemia in pregnancy in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria. International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Ireland: Elselvier Ireland Ltd. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.201401.004
Idowu O. A, Mafiana C. F, and Solotiloye D., (2005). Anaemia in pregnancy: A survey of pregnant women in Nigeria. Africa Health Sciences 2005; 295-299.
Owolabi M. O, Owolabi A. O, & OlaOlorun D. A, (2011). Sociodemographic factors in anaemia in pregnancy in southwestern Nigeria. S Afr Fam Pract 2012; 54 (3): 222-227.
F. I, Buseri, E. K. Uko 2, Z. A. Jeremiah, and E. A. Usanga, (2008). Prevalence and risk, factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Nigeria. The open haematology journal, 2, 14-19 1874-2769/08 2008 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Hoque M. (2006). Prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at Greytown, south Africa. Trop J. Obstet Gynaecol; 23 (1): 3-7.
Judith AN, Bhaduri A Bhat HV. (2008), prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy women: a community-based study in udupi district, Health Popul Perspect Issues 2008: 31 (1): 31-40.
H, Meda, N., Diallo A., Ouedraogo W. T., Cousens S. and Tylleskar. T (2011). A prospective study on neonatal mortality and its predictors in a rural area Burkina Faso: Can MDG 4 be met by 2015? Journal of perinatology 31, 656-663.
Olatubosun oa, Abasiattai AM, Bassey EA, James RS, Ibanga G, Morgan A. (2014) Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women at booking in the university of Uyo teaching hospital, uyo, Nigeria. Biomed Res Int. 2014; Article ID: 849080.
Mulambalah Chrispinus Sireti, Siamba Donald Namasaka, Ogun Philip Ariya, Siteti Darwin Injete, Wekesa Anthony Wanyonyi. (2014). Anaemia in pregnancy: revalence and possible risk factors in kakamega country, Kenya. Science journal of public health. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 216-222. doi: 10.11648/j.s jph. 20140203.23.
Gamble C., Ekwaru JP, ter Kunle FO. (2006). Insecticide-treated nets for preventing malaria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews; 2 CD003755. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003755.
Adinma J. I., Ikechebelu JL., Onyejimbe UN., Amilo G. (2002). Influence of antenatal clinic on the haematocrit value of value of pregnant Nigerian Igbo women. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol; 19 (2): 68-70.
L. Reviez, G. M. Gyte, and L. G. Cuervo (2007). Treatments for iron-defeciency anaemia in pregnancy, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD003094.
Garner P, Gilmezoglu AM. (2006). Drugs for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews; 4 CD000169 doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000169.
WHO (2015): http://www.who.int/malaria/areas/highriskgroups/pregnancy/en/ (accessed 04/10/2015)
Fleming AF (1987). Anaemia as a world health problem: in oxford textbook of medicine weatheral D. J. Ledinghan J. G. Warrel D. A. (eds) Oxford university press: 1972-1979.
Arnolu R. I., Oluwole A. A., Abudu O. O, (2006). Sociodemographic factors in anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Lagos, Nigeria. J. Obstet Gynaecol; 28 (6): 773-776.
Giles HM, Watson-Williams EJ (1964). Ball P. hookworm infection and anaemia. QJ Med, 33: 1-24.
Bundy DAP, Chan MS, Savioli L. (1995), Hookworm infection in pregnancy. Trans R. Soc Trop Med Hyg, 89: 521-522.
Fielder, Jack, D’Agostino, Alexis, and Sununtnasuk, Celeste. (2014). Nutritional Technical Brief: A rapid initial assestment of the distribution and consumption of iron-folic acid tablets through antenatal care in nigeria. Arlington, VA: USAID/strengthening partnerships, results and innovations in nutrition globally (SPRING) project.
Adewara EO, Omokanye LO, Olatinwo AWO, Durowade KA, Panti AA, Salaudeen AG: Prevalence of anaemia at booking in a semi-urban community in north-central Nigeria.. The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal vol 21, No. 4 December, 2014 Pp. 327-330.
National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF International. Nigeria Demographic and Health survey 2013. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF International. 2014. Pp 127-154.