Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among HIV-Infected Patient’s on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 153-158
Received: Sep. 1, 2014;
Accepted: Sep. 22, 2014;
Published: Sep. 30, 2014
Views 2942 Downloads 185
Alphonsus Udo Idung, Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College Of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria
Festus Abasiubong, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University Of Uyo, Nigeria
Background: Since the first case of HIV/AIDS was reported in Nigeria in 1986, HIV/AIDS has continued to penetrate the fabrics of all sectors of the Nigerian population. The plight of HIV/AIDS patients in Nigeria is made worse by inadequate supply of anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs. Methods: A prospective study was done between April and October 2013. Using a systematic sampling technique, 290 adult consenting male and female HIV/AIDS patients aged between 18 and 69 years who were on ARV drugs were recruited. They were assessed for use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) along with ARV drugs. Two research assistants assisted in data collection in a rural hospital using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 290 subjects recruited, 259 (89.3%) had their data analyzed, while data for 31 (10.7%) subjects were discarded due to incomplete information. Subjects consisted of 101(39.0%) males and 158(61.0%) females. Of the 101 males 50(19.3%) used CAM; compared to 100(38.6%) females who also used CAM (p= 0.028). The mean age of CAM users was 34.39 (sd=10-62) years. Subjects between 29 and 49 years constituted the largest number of HIV- infected respondents who also used CAM. Subjects in the low income cadre patronized CAM more than those in the middle or higher income cadre (p=0.004). Herbal products were the most preferred CAM used by subjects in this study (31.7%); and was followed by faith and prayer healing (14.7%). Five (1.9%) subjects drank urine as a form of therapy. Most subjects in this study preferred CAM because of the naturalness of their source and also because of concern that ARV drugs alone may not effectively manage their HIV/AIDS infection. Conclusions: CAM use is high among HIV/AIDS patients on ARV drugs in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Because of the possible risks of interactions following the concurrent use of CAM and ARV drugs, care givers involved in the care of HIV/AIDS patients should be vigilant in this regard.
Alphonsus Udo Idung,
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among HIV-Infected Patient’s on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria, Clinical Medicine Research.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2014, pp. 153-158.
UNAIDS. The AIDS pandemic in the 21st century. International population reports 2004.
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 2000. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Geneva: UNAIDS.
National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Federal Republic of Nigerian, Global AIDS Response Country Progress Report, GARPR 2012, Abuja, Nigeria.
Federal Ministry of Health (Nigeria).National HIV/AIDS and reproductive Health Survey, 2007 (NARHS plus) Abuja Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Health 2008.
United States Agency for development (USAID) and World Health Organization (WHO) 2004. Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, Washington DC, USAID; Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization. 2002. WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005. Geneva: WHO.
National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine/ available at http://www.nccam,nih.gov/accessed 18.11 2013.
Edduoks M, Maghrani M, Lemhadri A, Ouahidi ML, Jouad H. Ethno -pharmacological Surrey of Medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac diseases in the South-East Region of Morocco. J Ethno. Pharmacol. 2002; 82 (23): 97-105.
Ezeoma ER, Anarado A N. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008; 7:28.
Duggan J, Peterson WS, Schutz M, Khuder S, Charkraborty J. Use of Complementary and Alternative therapies in HIV-infected patients. AIDS patient care STDs. 2001; 15: 159.167.
Traditional Medicine;- Fact sheet No 134 (Revised May 2003 ) Geneva: WHO ,2003. Available at http://www.who.int/accessed 18.11-2013.
Fairfield KM, Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Libman H, Philips RS. Patterns of use, expenditures and perceived efficacy of Complementary and Alternative therapies in HIV-infected patients. Arch. Intern Medicine 1998; 158:2257-2264.
Ekwunife OI, Oreh C, Ubaka CM. Concurrent Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Anti-retroviral therapy reduces adherence to HIV medications. Int. J. Pharm. Pract. 2012; 20(5) 340-3.
Qua Iboe Leprosy Hospital, Ekpene Obom, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: A brief pictorial history of the hospital and the Rehabilitation programme 2007; 2-6.
Rao KV. Determination of Sample size IN: Rad KV, Seenayya G, (editors) .Biostatistics, A manual of Statistical Methods for use in Health, Nutrition and Anthropology, 2nd ed. Jaypee Brothers (medical publishers) (p) LTD, New Delhi 2007 pp 210-218.
National Minimum wage Act Cap N61 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004 as amended by Act 2011.
Malangu N. Self-reported use of Traditional, Complementary and over-the counter medicines by HIV-infected patients on Anti-retroviral therapy in Pretoria, South Africa, Africa. J Trad. CAM. 2007; 4 (3): 273-278.
Abasiubong F, Udoh SB, Idung AL, Umoiyoho AJ. Attitudes and sexual behaviours of unmarried people with HIV/AIDS living in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Mental Health in family medicine 2012; 9: 225-32.
Langlois-Klassen D, Kipp W. Jhangri GS, Rubaac T. Use of Traditional Herbal Medicine by AIDS Patients in Kabarole District, Western Uganda .AmJ. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2007; 77(4): 757-63.
Igoli JO. Ogaji OG, Tor-Anyim TA, Igoli NP. Traditional Medicine Practice amongst the Igede people of Nigeria, Part 11. Afr J. Traditional Complementary Alternative medicine 2005; 2: 134-52.
Peltzer K, Friend-du preez N, Ramlagan S, Fomumdam H, Anderson J. Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Anti-retroviral Treatment Adherence Among HIV Patients in KWAZULU-Natal, South Africa, Afr. J. Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 2010; 7(2): 125-137.
Chinouya M, O’ Keefe. God will look after Us: Africans, HIV and Religion in Million Keynes Diversity Health Soc. Care 2005; 2” 177-86.
WiWanitkit V. The use of CAM by HIV-infected patients in Thailand Complementary Therapy Medicine 2003; 11: 39-41.