Separation of Surface Hardened Glass with Non-ablation Laser Technique
American Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing
Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 47-55
Received: Jul. 9, 2018; Accepted: Sep. 28, 2018; Published: Nov. 6, 2018
Views 971      Downloads 89
Zhongke Wang, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech), Singapore
Wei Liang Seow, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
Hongyu Zheng, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech), Singapore; School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China
Cai Xue, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
Article Tools
Follow on us
The study investigated cutting of glass by non-laser ablation technique through non-linear absorption laser pulses induced optical breakdown, melting and plasma expansion throughout the glass thickness from bottom to top. Picosecond near-infrared laser pulses were used. The laser beam was focused with an objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) of 0.1 which produced a spot size of 19.6 µm in diameter. The study revealed that focus position is a key factor in determining glass well-separation. When the laser focus was placed at 500 μm below the top surface for a 700 μm thick ion exchanged Gorilla glass, namely more than half of the glass thickness, the glass could be well-separated into two pieces. At focus near the top surface, V-shaped ablation grooves were generated at the glass top surface without glass separation. At focus inside the glass and near to the bottom surface, internal scribing occurred at the bottom part of the glass. The glass could also be separated by scribing-caused cracking throughout the glass entire thickness. At the optimal focus ranges, well-separation of the glass was found to be at speeds of 0.5-6 mm/s and pulse frequency around 200 KHz with laser fuence of 0.87 J/cm2. At low pulse frequencies such as below 100 KHz, glass top surface was ablated without glass separation. At higher pulse frequencies above 300 KHz, cracks were produced and the glass was separated into multiple pieces. Interestingly, at pulse frequency upto 500 KHz, both top surface ablation and bottom surface ablation occurred. Eventually, the glass was cracked into multiple pieces. Different pulse frequency produces different pulse energy. For example, 200 KHz generates a laser fluence of 0.87 J/cm2 at the glass top surface, 100 KHz for 1.59 J/cm2 and 300 KHz for 0.60 J/cm2 etc. Furthermore, the glass was cracked at high speeds above 10 mm/s. The results indicate that there is an optimal time-dependent energy deposition, namely, laser energy deposition rate for glass well-separation. The calculation shows that the energy deposition rates were between 1.29×104 μw/μm3 to 1.54×105 μw/μm3.
Glass Cutting, Laser Ablation, Surface Hardened Glass, Laser Cutting
To cite this article
Zhongke Wang, Wei Liang Seow, Hongyu Zheng, Cai Xue, Separation of Surface Hardened Glass with Non-ablation Laser Technique, American Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2018, pp. 47-55. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmsp.20180303.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Udrea M. 2000. Small power pulsed and continuous longitudinal CO2 Laser for material processing Proc. SPIE 4068 657-662
Yamamoto K. Hasaka N. Morita H. Ohmura E. 2010. Influence of thermal expansion coefficient in laser scribing of glass Precision Engineering 34 70-75
Hermanns C. 2000. Laser cutting of glass Proc. of SPIE 4102 219-226
Du K. Shi P. 2003. Subsurface precision machining of glass substrates by innovative lasers Glass Sci. Technology 76 95-98
Nikumba S. Chena Q. Lia C. Reshefa H. Zheng H. Y. Qiu H. Low D. 2005. Precision glass machining drilling and profile cutting by short pulse lasers Thin Solid Films 477 216– 221
Abramov A. A. Black M. L. Glaesemann G. S. 2010. Laser separation of chemically strengthened glass Physics Procedia 5 285-290
Russ S. Siebert C. Eppelt U. Hartmann C. Faißt B. Schulz W. 2013. Picosecond laser ablation of transparent materials Proc. of SPIE 8608 86080E-1-11
Kumkara M. Bauerb L. Russb S. Wendela M. Kleinera J. Grossmanna D. Bergnerc K. Noltec S. 2014. Comparison of different processes for separation of glass and crystals using ultra short pulsed lasers Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8972 897214-1-16
Haupt O. Müller D. Gäbler F. 2013. Shorter Pulse Widths Improve Micromachining EuroPhotonics 18 28-30
Butkus S. Paipulas D. Sirutkaitis R. Sirutkaitis V. 2014. Rapid cutting and drilling of transparent materials via femtosecond laser filamentation Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering 9 213-220
Rekow M. Zhou Y. Falletto N. 2014. Precision glass processing with picosecond laser pulses Industrial Laser Solutions Mar/Apr. 11-14
Wang Z. K. Zheng H. Y. Seow W. L. Wang X. C. 2015 Investigation on material removal efficiency in debris-free laser ablation of brittle substrates Journal of Materials Processing Technology 219 133-142
Watanabe W. Tamaki T. Ozeki Y. Itoh K. 2010. Filamentation in Ultrafast Laser Material Processing in book “Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VI” Editors: Yamanouchi K. Gerber. G. Bandrauk A. D. Vol. 99 of the series Springer Series in Chemical Physics pp161-181
Miyamoto I. Cvecek K. Schmidt M. 2011. Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses Opt. Express 19 10714-10727
Koubassov V. Laprise J. F. Théberge F. Förster E. Sauerbrey R. Müller B. Glatzel U. Chin S. L. 2004. Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass Applied Physics A 79 499-505
Sun M. Urs Eppelt Schulz W. Zhu J. 2013. Role of thermal ionization in internal modification of bulk borosilicate glass with picosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates Optical Materials Express 3 1716-1726
Kaschke M. Donnerhacke K. H. Rill M. S. 2013. Optical Devices in Ophthalmology and Optometry: Technology Design Principles and Clinical Applications John Wiley & Sons Germany pp375-392
Chin S. L. 2010. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation Springer Series On Atomic Optical And Plasma Physics pp. 6-8
Karlsson S. Jonson B. Stålhandske C. 2010. The technology of chemical glass strengthening- a review European Journal of Glass Science and Technology A 51 41-54
Steen W. Watkins K. G. Mazumder J. Laser Material Processing 2010 4thed Springer Science & Business Media London p. 91
Machado L. M. Samad R. E. Rossi W. Junior N. D. V. 2012. D-Scan measurement of ablation threshold incubation effects for ultrashort laser pulses Optics Express 20 4114-4123
Eaton S. M. Cerullo G. Osellame R. 2012. Fundamentals of Femtosecond Laser Modification of Bulk Dielectrics Femtosecond Laser Micromachining vol. 123 2012 complied by Roberto Osellame Giulio Cerullo Roberta Ramponi Topics in Applied Physics London pp 3-1
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186