American Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 23-31
Received: May 24, 2019;
Accepted: Jun. 25, 2019;
Published: Jul. 9, 2019
Views 162 Downloads 33
Tanvir Singh, Department of Mechanical Engineering, DR. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
Shalabh Kumar Tiwari, Department of Mechanical Engineering, DR. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
Dinesh Kumar Shukla, Department of Mechanical Engineering, DR. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
In the present work, attempts were made to join AA6061-T6 sheets by Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. Al2O3 nanoparticles were added into the aluminum matrix for refining the microstructure of the nugget zone (NZ) and to restrict the growth of granularly in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In order to illustrate the influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles on mechanical properties, namely ultimate tensile strength, micro-hardness distribution, and wear resistance of the welded joints, FSW was conducted with and without nanoparticles at a constant rotating velocity of 2000 rpm and transverse velocity of 70 mm/min. For characterization of microstructures, optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed. The findings revealed that Al2O3 nanoparticles addition along the joint line resulted in remarkable refining of grains structure in the weld nugget zone. This was due to the pinning effect produced by nano-sized Al2O3 particles which prevent the grain growth followed by recrystallization during FSW, leading to a remarkable reduction in grain size. Also, the sample with nanoparticles joined at rotating and transverse velocities of 2000 rpm and 70 mm/min showed higher tensile properties than the sample without nanoparticles. However, the employment of single FSW pass resulted in an unusual Al2O3 nanoparticles distribution and void initiation at the interface between Al-matrix and Al2O3 nanoparticles in the heat-affected zone resulted in the early fracture of welded joints during tensile loading. Moreover, Al2O3 nanoparticles addition results in the reduction of frictional coefficient and increment in wear resistance due to fine small grains size and large distribution of hardness in NZ of friction stir welded specimens.
Shalabh Kumar Tiwari,
Dinesh Kumar Shukla,
Fabrication of AA6061-T6/Al2O3 Reinforced Nanocomposite Using Friction Stir Welding, American Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 23-31.
F. C. Liu, Z. Y. Ma, “Influence of Tool Dimension and Welding Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction-Stir-Welded 6061-T651 Aluminium Alloy,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 39 (10), 2378–2388, 2008.
J. He, Z. Ling, H. Li, “Effect of tool rotational speed on residual stress, microstructure, and tensile properties of friction stir welded 6061-T6 aluminum alloy thick plate,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84 (9–12), 1953–1961, 2016.
KAUFMAN JG. Introduction to aluminum alloys and tempers [M]. ASM. Int., 2000.
ASM Handbook. 02, 2004.
M. D. A. Pasha, P. R. Reddy, P. Laxminarayana, I. A. Khan, “SiC and Al2O3 Reinforced Friction Stir Welded Joint of Aluminium Alloy 6061,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology. 5 (1), 151–172, 2018.
T. Prakash, S. Sivasankaran, P. Sasikumar, “Mechanical and Tribological Behaviour of Friction-Stir-Processed Al 6061 Aluminium Sheet Metal Reinforced with Al2O3/0.5Gr Al2O3/0.5Gr Hybrid Surface Nanocomposite”, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 80 (9–12), 1919–1926, 2015.
R. S. Mishra, M. W. Mahoney, “Friction”, 2007.
T Khaled, “An outsider looks at friction stir welding”, ANM-112N-05-06, 2005.
S. Yazdanian, Z. W. Chen, G. Littlefair, “Effects of friction stir lap welding parameters on weld features on advancing side and fracture strength of AA6060-T5 welds”, J. Mater. Sci. 47 (3), 1251–1261, 2012.
Y. S. Sato, M. Urata, H. Kokawa, “Parameters controlling microstructure and hardness during friction-stir welding of precipitation-hard enable aluminum alloy 6063”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 33 (3), 625–635, 2002.
F. J. Liu, L. Fu, H. Y. Chen, “Effect of high rotational speed on temperature distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 6061-T6 thin plate joints”, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 96 (5–8), 1823–1833, 2018.
N. Gangil, S Maheshwari, A. N. Siddiquee, “Multipass FSP on AA 6063-T6 Al: Strategy to fabricate surface composites”, Mater. Manuf. Processes. 33 (7), 805-811, 2018.
J. Guo, B. Y Lee, Z. Du, G. Bi, M. J. Tan, J Wei, “Effect of Nano-Particle Addition on Grain Structure Evolution of Friction Stir Processed Al 6061 During Post-Weld Annealing”, Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 40 (2), 559–569, 2015.
C. M. A. Fernández, R. A. Rey, M. J. C. Ortega, D. Verdera, C. L. Vidal, “Friction-stir processing strategies to develop a surface composite layer on AA6061-T6”, “Mater. Manuf. Process. 33 (10), 1-8, 2018.
M. Sharifitabar, A. Sarani, S. Khorshahian, M. S. Afarani, “Fabrication of 5052Al/Al2O3 nanoceramic particle reinforced composite via friction stir processing route”, Mater. Des. 32, 4164–4172, 2011.
M. Yang, C. Xu, C Wu, K. C. Lin, Y. J. Chao, L. An, “Fabrication of AA6061/Al2O3n`ano ceramic particle reinforced composite coating by using friction stir processing”, J. Mater. Sci. 45, 4431–4438, 2010.
H. R. Ezatpour, S. A. Sajjadi, M. H. Sabzevar, A. Chaichi, G. R. Ebrahimi, “Processing map and microstructure evaluation of AA6061/Al2O3 nanocomposite at different temperatures”, Trans. Nonferrous. Met. Soc. China. 27 (6), 1248-1256, 2017.
M. Saeidi, M. Barmouz, M. K. B. Givi, “Investigation on AA5083/AA7075+Al2O3 Joint Fabricated by Friction Stir Welding: Characterizing Microstructure, Corrosion and Toughness Behaviour”, Mater. Res. 18 (6), 1156-1162, 2015.
M. F. Nikoo, H. Azizi, N. Parvin, H. Y. Naghibi, “The influence of heat treatment on microstructure and wear properties of friction stir welded AA6061-T6/Al2O3 nanocomposite joint at four different traveling speed”, J. Manuf. Process. 22, 90–98, 2016.
L. M. Marzoli, A. V. Strombeck, J. F. D. Santos, C. Gambaro, L. M. Volpone, “Friction stir welding of an AA6061/Al2O3/20p reinforced alloy”, Compos. Sci. Technol. 66, 363–371, 2006.
G. Minak, L. Ceschini, I. Boromei, M. Ponte, “Fatigue properties of friction stir welded particulate reinforced aluminum matrix composites”, Int. J. Fatigue. 32, 218–226, 2010.
D. Aruri, K. Adepu, K. Bazavadaa, “Wear and mechanical properties of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy surface hybrid composites [(SiC +Gr) and (SiC + Al2O3)] fabricated by friction stir processing”, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 2 (4), 362–369, 2013.
N. Parumandla, K. Adepu, “Effect of Al2O3 and SiCnano-reinforcements on microstructure mechanical and wear properties of surface nanocomposites fabricated by Friction Stir Processing”, Maters. Sci. 24 (3), 338-344, 2018.
PRADO RA. MURR LE, SHINDO DJ, SOTO KF. Tool wear in the friction-stir welding of aluminum alloy 6061+20% Al2O3: a preliminary study [J]. Scr Mater, 2001, 45: 75-80.
R. A. Prado. L. E. Murr, K. F. Soto, J. C. Mcclure, “Self-optimization in tool wear for friction-stir welding of Al 6061/20% Al2O3 MMC”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 349, 156-165, 2003.
C. Sharma, D. K. Dwivedi, P. Kumar, “Effect of welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints of AA7039 aluminum alloy”, Mater. Des. 36, 379–390, 2012.
D. Lohwasser, Z. Chen, “Friction stir welding from basics to applications”, 2010.
G. Singh, K. Singh, J. Singh, “Effect of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties in friction stir welding of aluminum alloy”, Trans. Indian. Inst. Met. 64, 325–330, 2011.
O. S. Salih, H. Ou, W. Sun, D. G. Mccartney, “A review of friction stir welding of aluminum matrix composites”, Mater. Des. 86, 61–71, 2015.
P. Cavaliere, A. D. Santis, F. Panella, A. Squillace, “Effect of welding parameters on mechanical and microstructural properties of dissimilar AA6082–AA2024 joints produced by friction stir welding”, Mater. Des. 30 (3), 609–616, 2009.
L. Ceschini, I. Boromei, G. Minak, A. Morri, F. Tarterini, “Microstructure, tensile and fatigue properties of AA6061/20 vol. %Al2O3p friction stir welded joints”, Compos. Part. A. 38, 1200–1210, 2007.
S. Zarghani, S. F. K. Bozorg, A. Z. Hanzaki, “Microstructures and mechanical properties of Al/Al2O3 surface nano-composite layer produced by friction stir processing”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 500, 84–91, 2009.