Please enter verification code
The Effectiveness of Distance Education in Ghana
Science Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics
Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2016, Pages: 159-167
Received: Jun. 24, 2016; Accepted: Jul. 5, 2016; Published: Jul. 28, 2016
Views 4848      Downloads 228
Mends-Brew Edwin, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Accra Polytechnic, Accra, Ghana
Asabere Nana Yaw, Department of Computer Science, Accra Polytechnic, Accra, Ghana
Article Tools
Follow on us
Distance Education (DE) focuses on the pedagogy, technology, and instructional system designs that seek to deliver education to students who are not physically present "on site" in a traditional classroom or campus. The introduction of new educational technologies has brought in its wake a pedagogical shift in higher education. Emerging technologies especially in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have unleashed new opportunities and frontiers in higher education for a countless number of the populace who otherwise would have had no access to tertiary education. Essentially, the study sought to determine the Effectiveness of Distance Education Programmes in the Ghanaian school system, the contribution DE has made in improving quality and accessibility to higher education in Ghana and the benefits derived from DE as well as providing a platform for improving productivity in both public and private sectors of the economy. The study made use of primary data collected using stratified random sampling procedure. The data was extensively analyzed using graphs and tables as well as chi-square test of goodness-of-fit. The results showed that, DE has improved quality and accessibility to higher education culminating in significant improvement in productivity levels in both public and private sectors of the economy over the last several years. Access to tertiary education, convenience, flexibility and improved knowledge and employee efficiency are the ultimate benefits derived from Distance Education programmes. Empirically, the study also established that Distance Education has been effective in the Higher Education Enterprise in Ghana.
Distance Education (DE), Effectiveness, Higher Education Practice, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Tertiary Education, Accessibility
To cite this article
Mends-Brew Edwin, Asabere Nana Yaw, The Effectiveness of Distance Education in Ghana, Science Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016, pp. 159-167. doi: 10.11648/j.sjams.20160404.16
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Asabere, N. Y and Mends-Brew, E (2012) Distance Learning and Electronic Learning (e-Learning): Are they the same? An overview of Some Tertiary institutions In Ghana
Barclay, M (2001) Introduction to Business Statistics
Bruce, B. (1999). Education online: Learning anywhere, anytime. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 42 (8), 662-665.
Collis B. A. (1996). Tele-Learning in a Digital World: The Future of Distance Learning, International Thomson.
Dagger, D et al (2007) Service oriented e-learning platforms: from monolithic systems to flexible services,
Eastwood, 1995. Outlooks and Opportunities in Blended and Distance Learning
Eastwood, K. and Onken, M. "The Efficacy of Distance Learning in Affecting Change". WebNet World Conference 98, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Orlando, November 1998.
Falvo, D. A and Johnson, B. F (2007). The Use of Learning ManagementSystems in the United States.
Garrison, D. R. (1997). Computer conferencing: The post-industrial age of distance education. Open Learning, 12 (2), 3–11.
Garrison, D. R. (2009). Implications of online and blended learning for the conceptual development and practice of distance education. The Journal of Distance Education, 23 (2). Retrieved from
Gerhardt, L. A. (2005) Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, ITHET 2005, 6th International Conference.
Gibson, C. C. (1998b). The distance learner’s academic self-concept. In C. C. Gibson (Ed.), Distance learners in higher education: Institutional responses for quality outcomes (pp. 65-76). Madison, WI: Atwood.
Gordor, B. K. and Howard, N. K. (2006). Introduction to Statistical Methods. Ghana Mathematics Group, Ghana.
Holmberg, B. (2005). The Evolution, Principles and Practices of Distance Education, Bls-Verlagder: Oldenburg.
Holmberg, B. 1995. Theory and practice of distance education, 2nd revised edition. London and New York: Routledge.
Holmberg, B. 2003. Distance Education in Essence: An overview of theory and practice in the early twenty-first century 2nd ed.
Honeyman and Miller (1993). "Agriculture Distance Education: A valid Alternative for Higher Education’’.
Hope, A and Guiton, P. (2006). Strategies for Sustainable Open and Distance Learning. IEEE Internet computing, vol 11
Keegan, D. (1993 b). Reintegration of the teaching acts. In D. Keegan (Ed.), Theoretical principles of distance education. London and New York: Routledge
Keegan, D. (Ed.) (1993 a). Theoretical principles of distance education. London and New York: Routledge.
Keegan, D. J. (1990). Foundations of distance education. London and New York: Routledge.
Kirkwood, A., and Price, L. (2005). Learners and Learning in the 21st Century: What do we know about students' attitudes and experiences of ICT that will help us design courses? Studies in Higher Education 30 (3), 257-274.
Kwapong, O. A. T. F. (2010). Equitable Access: Information and Communication Technology for Open and Distance Learning. iUniverse, Inc., Bloomington New.
Malik, N. A., Belawati, T., & Baggaley, J. (2005). Framework of Collaborative Research and Development on Distance Learning Technology for Asia. Paper presented at the 19th Annual Conference, Association of Asian Open Universities, Jakarta, Indonesia. Retrieved June 9, 2007, from
Moore, M., Kearsley, (2005). Distance Education: a system view. Wadsworth: USA, 3rd Edition.
National Council For Tertiary Education (NCTE) Report (2010)
National Council for tertiary Education (NCTE), Ghana Report, 2006
Onken, M., & Eastwood, K. (1998). Is it possible to use distance learning to affect change in attitudes? The Third Annual TCC Conference: Online Instruction: Trends and Issues II, Honolulu, Hawaii (on-line), April 1998 On-line:
Phipps, R., and Merisotis, J. (1999). What’s the Difference? A review of Contemporary Research on the Effectiveness of Distance education in Higher Education. The institute for Higher Education policy.
Ronald M. W. (2010). Introduction to Business Statistics, South-Western College Publications, 7TH Edition.
Tau, Daniel R (2011). Open and Distance Learning Practices in Southern Africa: Collaborative Initiatives.
Taylor, James C (2001). Fifth Generation Distance Education: A Sustainable Approach To Development.
Thompson, M. M. (1998). Distance learners in higher education. In C. Campbell Gibson (Ed.), Distance learners in higher education: Institutional responses for quality outcomes. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing, pp. 10-18)
Von Prümmer, C. (2000). Women and Distance Education: Challenges and opportunities. New York: Routledge.
Wulf, Katie (1996) "Training via the Internet: where are we?" Training & Development.
IDL, KNUST. (2015)
IDCE, UG (2006-2008)
IDCE, UG (2013)
UCC, (2006-2012)
IEDE, UEW (2012-2015)
[45] &
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186