Determination of Optimal Tilt Angle for Biannual Seasonally Adjusted Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules Based on Perez Transposition Model
American Journal of Software Engineering and Applications
Volume 6, Issue 3, June 2017, Pages: 85-92
Received: Jan. 3, 2017; Accepted: Jan. 10, 2017; Published: Jun. 12, 2017
Views 2541      Downloads 71
Okon Dominic Ekanem, Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO), Owerri, Nigeria
James O. Onojo, Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO), Owerri, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Determination of optimal tilt angle for seasonally adjusted flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules based on Perez transposition model is presented. Particularly, two seasons are considered, namely winter and summer. As such, two optimal tilt angles are obtained which requires that the tilt angle the of flat plate PV module will be adjusted twice in a year. The method is based on yearly global radiation incident on a horizontal plane as downloaded from NASA website. Furthermore, PVSyst software that uses transposition model is used to generate the yearly global radiation incident on a tilted plane for various tilt angles, from 0° to 46°. The location used in the study is at longitude of 7.860761, latitude of 5.011474 and elevation of 67.506 m. The results show that the winter season optimal tilt angle is 25.46° the summer season optimal tilt angle is 0° and the yearly fixed optimal tilt angle is 7.16°. The annual transposition factor for the seasonally adjusted tilt angle is 1.05 whereas annual transposition factor for the year fixed tilt angle 1.01. The result amounts to 3.6% improvement is solar radiation capture due to the seasonal adjustment of the tilt angle when compare to the yearly fixed tilt angle.
Optimal Tilt Angle, Global Solar Radiation, PVSyst Software, Transposition Factor, Yearly Fixed Tile Angle, Seasonally Adjusted Tilt Angle
To cite this article
Okon Dominic Ekanem, James O. Onojo, Determination of Optimal Tilt Angle for Biannual Seasonally Adjusted Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules Based on Perez Transposition Model, American Journal of Software Engineering and Applications. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2017, pp. 85-92. doi: 10.11648/j.ajsea.20170603.15
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mohammadi, K., Mostafaeipour, A., & Sabzpooshani, M. (2014). Assessment of solar and wind energy potentials for three free economic and industrial zones of Iran. Energy, 67, 117-128.
Li, G. H., Tang, R. S., & Zhong, H. (2015, July). Optical performance of horizontal single-axis tracked solar panels. In Specialized Collections (Vol. 2, pp. 3232-3237). Trans Tech Publications.
Mageshwaran, G., Ramachandran, S., Gobinath, K., & DuraiRaj, R. B. (2016). Design of tracking system for helical-coiled receiver tube of parabolic trough collector. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 1-5.
Y. M. Chen, C. H. Lee, H. C. Wu, (2005)“Calculation of optimum installation angle for fixed solar-cell panels based on the genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing method,” IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion 20/2, pp.467-473, 2005.
Mondol, J. D., Yohanis, Y. G., & Norton, B. (2007). The impact of array inclination and orientation on the performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic system. Renewable Energy, 32 (1), 118-140.
Darhmaoui, H., & Lahjouji, D. (2013). Latitude based model for tilt angle optimization for solar collectors in the Mediterranean Region. Energy Procedia, 42, 426-435.
Rakovec, J., Kastelec, D., Zakšek, K., Brecl, K., & Marko Topic. (2011). Orientation and Tilt Dependence of a Fixed PV Array Energy Yield Based on Measurements of Solar Energy and Ground Albedo-a Case Study of Slovenia. INTECH Open Access Publisher.
Kurnik, J., Jankovec, M., Brecl, K., & Topič, M. (2008). Development of outdoor photovoltaic module monitoring system. Informacije MIDEM, 38 (2), 75-80.
Tallab, R., & Malek, A. (2015, December). Predict system efficiency of 1 MWc photovoltaic power plant interconnected to the distribution network using PVSYST software. In 2015 3rd International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.
Badri, A., Emadifar, R., & Eldoromi, M. (2016). Simulation and evaluation of solar potential in Tehran, Kerman and Yazd for a 500 kW photovoltaic power plant using PVsyst software. Iranian Journal of Energy, 19 (1), 0-0.
Witzig, A., Prandini, M., Wolf, A., & Kunath, L. (2016). Teaching Renewable Energy Systems by Use of Simulation Software: Experience at Universities of Applied Sciences, in In-Service Training, and from International Know-How Transfer. Presented at and in the proceedings of Eurosun, 2016, 13.
Okello, D., van Dyk, E. E., & Vorster, F. J. (2015). Analysis of measured and simulated performance data of a 3.2 kWp grid-connected PV system in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Energy Conversion and Management, 100, 10-15.
Rachchh, R., Kumar, M., & Tripathi, B. (2016). Solar photovoltaic system design optimization by shading analysis to maximize energy generation from limited urban area. Energy Conversion and Management, 115, 244-252.
Mitra, I., Davis, M., & Pasicko, R. (2011). MS32, MS34.
Burgess, P. A., Vahdati, M. M., Davies, D. D., & Philip, S. K. Development Of A Virtual Pyranometer For Solar Energy Monitoring. TSBE EngD Conference, TSBE Centre, University of Reading, Whiteknights, RG6 6AF, 5th July 2011. Available at: Accessed on December 24th 2016.
Handoyo, E. A., & Ichsani, D. (2013). The optimal tilt angle of a solar collector. Energy Procedia, 32, 166-175.
Mehleri, E. D., Zervas, P. L., Sarimveis, H., Palyvos, J. A., & Markatos, N. C. (2010). Determination of the optimal tilt angle and orientation for solar photovoltaic arrays. Renewable Energy, 35(11), 2468-2475.9].
Kaddoura, T. O., Ramli, M. A., & Al-Turki, Y. A. (2016). On the estimation of the optimum tilt angle of PV panel in Saudi Arabia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 65, 626-634.
Yu, D., Gudmundsdottir, R., Catteau, R., Kamel, R., Fung, A., Mohammadi, F., & Raahemifar, K. VALIDATING A SIMPLIFIED PV MODEL AGAINST TRNSYS MODEL.
Gueymard, C. A. (2008). From Global Horizontal to Global tilted irradiance: how accurate are solar energy engineering predictions in practice. In Solar 2008 Conf., San Diego, CA, American Solar Energy Society.
Al-Mimar, S. (2015). Integration of solar and wind power at Lillgrundwind farm.: Wind turbine shadow effect on solar farm atLillgrund wind farm.
Georgitsioti, T. (2015). Photovoltaic potential and performance evaluation studies in India and the UK (Doctoral dissertation, Northumbria University).
Failla, M. C. (2016). Snow and Ice on Photovoltaic Devices-Analysis of a Challenge and Proposals for Solutions (Master's thesis, NTNU).
Mermoud, A., & Wittmer, B. (2014). PVSYST user's manual. Switzerland, January.
Lan, H., Dai, J., Wen, S., Hong, Y. Y., Yu, D. C., & Bai, Y. (2015). Optimal Tilt Angle of Photovoltaic Arrays and Economic Allocation of Energy Storage System on Large Oil Tanker Ship. Energies, 8(10), 11515-11530.
Karafil, A., Ozbay, H., Kesler, M., & Parmaksiz, H. (2015, November). Calculation of optimum fixed tilt angle of PV panels depending on solar angles and comparison of the results with experimental study conducted in summer in Bilecik, Turkey. In 2015 9th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ELECO) (pp. 971-976). IEEE.
Handoyo, E. A., & Ichsani, D. (2013). The optimal tilt angle of a solar collector. Energy Procedia, 32, 166-175.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186