Physicochemical Characterisation, and Antioxidant Properties of the Seeds and Oils of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) and Garlic (Allium Sativum)
Science Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2014, Pages: 44-50
Received: Nov. 1, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 14, 2014; Published: Dec. 22, 2014
Views 3018      Downloads 299
Author
Aletor Oluwatoyin, Department of Chemistry, The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704 Akure, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) were characterized with respect to their proximate composition, energy value, mineral content, anti-nutrient constituents, functional and antioxidants properties. Their seed oils were also extracted and characterised with respect to their physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The crude protein (CP), crude fibre(CF), ether extract (EE), ash and gross energy of ginger averaged 7.8, 6.2, 11.0, 9.0 g/100gDM and 385.6 kcal/100g respectively. The corresponding values for garlic were 27.7, 1.0, 2.5, 1.5 g/100gDM and 411.3 kcal/100g. K was the most abundant mineral followed by Mg, Na and Ca. Among the trace minerals, Mn was the most abundant and Zn, the least. A similar trend was found in garlic. The mean value for water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity(OAC) in ginger(410.0, 407.3%) respectively were lower than those of garlic (580.0, 630.9 %) while the foaming stability and emulsion stability(43.7 and 48.0%) were higher. Mean phytate and phytin-P content in ginger (27.1 & 7.6mg/g) were similar to those of garlic ( 23.7 & 6.7mg/g) respectively while the polyphenols (as tannic acid equivalent) and oxalate levels in ginger were generally lower than in garlic as indicated by very high CV(%) ranging from 139.3 to 118.4%. Diethylether extracted oils from ginger had acid value(%), free fatty acid(%), saponification value (mmKOH/g), peroxide value (mmKOH/g) and iodine value(Wij’s) of 4.1, 2.1, 90.9 2.31 and 17.1 respectively. The corresponding values for garlic were 2.8%, 1.4%, 92.1mmKOH/g, 5.8mmKOH/g and 10.9 Wij’s, respectively.The thin layer Gas chromatographic analysis of the seed oils revealed the presence of fatty acids varying from C2 to C18 with concentrations of individual fatty acids varying from 0.30 to 1.6%. Oleic, stearic, palmitic and lauric acids were the principal fatty acids contributing to 1.43, 1.5, 1.3 and 1.0% respectively in ginger while the corresponding values in garlic were 1.5, 1.6, 1.4 and 1.1%, respectively. Antioxidant potentials measured as total phenol g/100g, reducing power (OD700) and free radical scavenging ability(%) were higher in ginger(3.6, 1.0,14.4; respectively than in garlic (2.9,0.7,13.1).
Keywords
Nutritive and Oil Characteristics, Functional Properties, Anti-Oxidant Potentials, Ginger and Garlic
To cite this article
Aletor Oluwatoyin, Physicochemical Characterisation, and Antioxidant Properties of the Seeds and Oils of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) and Garlic (Allium Sativum), Science Journal of Chemistry. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 44-50. doi: 10.11648/j.sjc.20140206.11
References
[1]
Prof.Aletor V. Ayobore Allelochemicals in plant food and feeding stuff (1): Nutritional biochemical and physiopathological aspects in animal production. Journal of Veterinary and Human Toxicology-1993 35 (1): 57-67.
[2]
Prof.Aletor, V.Ayobore Composition studies on edible tropical specie of mushroom Journal of Food Chemistry-1995 53: 375-379.
[3]
Dr.Aletor, Oluwatoyin, Owoeye, F.Beatrice and Prof.Aletor, V.Ayobore Effect of fermentation on the physic -chemical composition and multi-enzyme in vitro protein digestibility of Africa locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) and soyabean (Glycine max) seeds. Journal 0f Chemical Society of Nigeria (CSN)-2007 34 (2): 126-133.
[4]
Dr.Aletor, Oluwatoyin, Prof.Agbede, J.Olusola, Adeyeye, S.Adebowale and Prof.Aletor, V.Ayobore Chemical and Physico-Chemical characterization of the flours and oils from whole and rejected cashew-nut cultivated in south west Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition-2007 6(1): 89-93.
[5]
Dr.Aletor, Oluwatoyin, Alabi O.Olutayo Physico-chemical nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of three edible species of Mushroom. Journal of Science, Research and Management-2012 8 (1):7-13.
[6]
Dr.Aletor, Oluwatoyin Comparative, nutritive and physic-chemical evaluation of cassava (manihoto esculenta) leaf protein concentrate and fishmeal. Journal of Food Agriculture and Enviroment-2010 8(2): 39 – 43.
[7]
Amic D.,Davidovic, Beslo,D and Trinajstic,N. Structure –radical scavenging activity relationship of flavonoids. Croatia Chemical Acta-2003 76 (1), 55-61
[8]
AOAC Official method of Analysis 15th Edu. Association of official Analytical Chemist-1995 Washington DC.
[9]
Prof.Beuchat,R.Larry Functional and electrophoretic characterization of succinylated peanut flour protein. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry-1977 25: 258-261.
[10]
Codex Alimentarius Commission Recommended standard for edible fats and oils. A report by Joint FAO/WHO Programme-1970 Rome.
[11]
Coffin, C.W. and Garcia, V.V. Functional properties and amino acid content of a protein isolate from mungbean flour. Journal of Food Technology-1977 12: 473-484.
[12]
Day, R.A. and Underwood, A.L., Quantitative analysis 5th-1986 edition prentice-Hall
[13]
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology- . Vol 10, 3rd (Eds) 1980. pp 477 – 480. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
[14]
Fasset, D.W.Oxalates in toxicants occurring naturally in Foods. National Academy of Science Research Council-1966 18: 20-22. Washington DC.
[15]
Dr.Fasuyi. A Oludare .2007 .Bio-nutrient evaluations of three tropical leaf vegetables (Telfaria occidentalis, Amaranthus cruentis and Talium triangulae) as a sole dietary protein sources in rat assay.Journal Food Chemistry-2007 103: 757-765
[16]
Jagadish L.K, Krishnan V.V; Shenbhagaraman R; Kaviyarasan VComparative study on the nantioxidant , anticancer and antimicrobial property of Agaricus bisporus imbach before and after boiling. African Journal of Biotechnol-2009 8, 654-661.
[17]
Kempaiah, R.K, Srinivasan, K. Beneficial influence of dietary curcumin, capsaicin and garlic on erythrocyte integrity in high fat fed rats. Journal of Nutrition and Biochemistry-2004 56 (2): 150 – 157.
[18]
Makkar, H.P. S and Goodchild, A.V. Quantification of tannins. A laboratory manual lnternational centre for Agric. Research in the Dry Areas ICARDA-1994 pp1-25 Aleppo, Syria.
[19]
Nwinuka, N.M., Ibeh, G.O and Ekeke, GProximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four commonly consumed spices. Journal of Applied Science and Enviromental Management-2005 25 (9) : 150-155.
[20]
Prof.Ng, W.Keong and Dr. Wee, Kok L. The nutritive value of cassava leaf meal in pelleted feed for Nile Tilapia. Aquaculture-1989 83: 45-48.
[21]
Prof. Oboh, Ganiyu, Prof. Akindahunsi, A.A. Biochemical changes in cassava products (flour and garri) subjected to saccharomyces cervisae solid media fermentation. Journal of Food Chem-2003 82: 599-602.
[22]
Prof. Oboh, Ganiyu . Nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of condiments produced from some fermented underutilized legumes. Journal of Food Biochemistry-2006 30: 479-488.
[23]
Prof. Oboh Ganiyu, Rocha, J.T.B. 2007.Polyphenols in red pepper [Capsicum annuum var. aviculare (Tepin) and their protective effect on some anti-oxidants induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver .European Food Resource Technology-2007 225(2):239-247.
[24]
Prof.Oshodi A. Aladesanmi, Prof. Aletor V. Ayobore. Functional properties of haemagglutinine (Lectins) extracted from three edible varieties of lima beans (phaseolus). International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition1993 44: 133-136.
[25]
Prof.Oshodi A. Aladesanmi, Dr. Ogungbenle, H.N. and Prof.Oladimeji, M. O. Chemical composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and functional properties of beniseed (Sesamum radiatum), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) and quionoa (Chenopodium quionoa) of flours. lnternational Journal of Food Science and Nutrition-1999 50: 325-331
[26]
Prof. Ozcan, Mutlu Nutrient composition of rose (Rosa caninal) Seed and oils. Journal of Medicinal Foods-2002 5(3): 137-140.
[27]
Pulido, R., Bravo, E.R and Saura-Calixto, F. Anti-oxidant activity of dietary polyphenols as determined by a modified ferric reducing /antioxidant power assay. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry-2000 48:137-143.
[28]
Shimon, L J., Rabinkov, A Shin,.,. Miron,T., Mirelman,D., Wilchek,M and Frolow, F. . Two structures of alliinase from Alliium sativum L-apo form and ternary complex with aminoacrylate reaction intermediate covalently bound to PLP co-factor.Journal of Molecular Biology-2007 366(2): 611-625.
[29]
Snede W.George,Cochran,G.WilliamStatistical method.(6th Eds) 1973 IOWA State University Press. IOWA.
[30]
Prof.SosulkoW.Fleming.The centrifuge method of determining flour absorption in hard red spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry-1962 39: 344-350.
[31]
Ursini F. Mairino, M., Morazono, P., Roveri, G.,. A novel anti-oxidants (ldb 1031) affecting molecula mechanisms of cellular activation. Free rad. Bio.&Med- 1994 16:547-553.
[32]
Pof.Vogel, AlrfedT. Quantitative inorganic analysis-1962 pp 802 – 899. London, Longman.
[33]
Prof. Young, M. Silas, Dr. Greaves S. Jimmy Influence of variety and treatment of phytin contents of Wheat. Food Resource-1940 5 (1): 103-105.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186