Please enter verification code
Confirm
Study on the Structure Model of Water Molecule and the Reasons of Formation of Some Characteristics of Liquid & Solid Water
American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 9, Issue 2, March 2020, Pages: 11-27
Received: Apr. 14, 2020; Accepted: May 22, 2020; Published: Jun. 17, 2020
Views 309      Downloads 120
Authors
Peimin Pu, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; Cloud Water Engineering Inc. (CWEI), Nanjing, China
Jiangping Pu, Cloud Water Engineering Inc. (CWEI), Nanjing, China
Zhengbin Zhu, Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
A model for water (H2O) molecule, the structure of ice, snow and liquid water were presented, and the reasons of formation of their specific characteristics were modeled in good coincidence with observed data. (1) A stable quasi rigid molecule structure may be constructed by dominant trajectories of electrons round and between the H-O-H nucleus according with the laws of Columb’s force and Kepler’s movement rule. The core of the water molecule is a isosceles triangle with ratio of distances between nucleus: (H-H)2/(H-O)2=2.5, which would be surrounded by moving electrons and form an equilateral triangular pyramid (ETP Model) with 2 pairs of “+/-” electricity endpoints and edge length of 0.48017nm. (2) The “+/-” endpoint of a water molecule may attract other “-/+” endpoint in distance of less than 0.27 nm. A molecule may joints other molecule to have all their 4 planes parallel each other and the 6 molecules may joint as a hexagon loop with a common plane and then these loops may similarly be formed for each plane of the pyramid and extend to whole space and form the water ice structure with Zigzag Hexagon Tunnel-Vacancy System (ZHTVS Model) with porosity of ≥2.28. (3) A “sheet model” of desublimation like the snowflake is more possible phenomenon below 0°C in air, possessing the self-similarity with the hexagon-sexangle-six needle forms. (4) The liquid water has the same structure of the solid ice, but because there is 1/11 possibility to have an appearance of double electrons at one endpoint of the pyramid with “-” charge, so when the temperature is above 0°C, a part of water molecules on the frame may possess the energy for separating from the frame, and will move into the tunnel/vacancy, being as a “free water molecule”. The total volume of the liquid water would decrease until to 4°C to the minimum. The ratio of density of solid water ice and liquid water is 11/12=0.916667. (5) The relationships of the specific characteristics of the water with its construction, such as density, expansibility, compressibility, specific heat capacity, electric and thermal conductivity, solubility for O2, H2S, NaCl, KCl, etc. were discussed and numerical modeled. The experiments of saturated solution of NaCl audio-visual indicated that there are tunnel/vacancy spaces for storing NaCl molecules/ions, and increasing the volume of 1/11 of water volume after freezing. (6) The surface structure of liquid water and the applications of research results are presented in other papers.
Keywords
Model of Water Molecule Structure, Ice and liquid Water Structure, Snowflake Forms and Self-similarity, Water Structure and Its Properties, Porosity Ratio of Water, Water as Solvent, Salts Dissolving Process in Water
To cite this article
Peimin Pu, Jiangping Pu, Zhengbin Zhu, Study on the Structure Model of Water Molecule and the Reasons of Formation of Some Characteristics of Liquid & Solid Water, American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 9, No. 2, 2020, pp. 11-27. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200902.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Kenned, D and C. Norman, What Don’t We Know?; http://www. sciencemag.org/sciext/125th/; 1 July 2005: 125th Anniversary. Vol. 309, Issue 5731, pp. 75.
[2]
Horne R. A. Marine Chemistry, The Structure of Water and the Chemistry of the Hydrosphere, Wiley Interscience, 1969.
[3]
Tokyo Astronomical Observatory, Ed. By, Science Year Book, 60th Edition, 1987.
[4]
Yakolef, K. P. Ed. Handbook of Physics and Technology, Volume 1. Mathematics and Physics, Physic-Math Press. Moscow, 1960.
[5]
Van der Waals radius, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_der_Waals_redius.
[6]
HU shenzhi, ZHOU Zhaohui, CAI Qiru, Mean van Der Waal’s radii, of atoms in crystals. Acta Phys.-Chim. Sin., 2003, 19 (11): 1073-1077.
[7]
SA Clough, Y Beers, GP Klein, LS Rothman. Dipole moment of water from Stark measurements of H2O, HDO, and D2O, Journal of Chemical Physics, 1973, 59 (5): 2254-2259.
[8]
Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, The Structure of Ice, - Proceedings of the Royal Society of A, Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences, 1958 - rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org.
[9]
W. F. Giauque, J. W. Stout, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1936, 58 (7), pp 1144–1150; 7 Publication Date: July 1936; (Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical & Enciences).
[10]
ZHAN Zhenbin, CHEN Zhengdong, LIU Leansheng, et al, Theory anf Application of Ocenology—Oceanological Chemistry of Chinese Costal Waters, Oceanological Press, 1999. Beijing.
[11]
Freezing-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.html; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freezing#Supercooling;-40°C,-70°C.
[12]
Dorsey, N. E., Properties of Ordinary Water-Substance, Reinhold, New York, 1940.
[13]
Kompanets, A. S. Theoretical Physics, People Education Press. 1961, Beijing.
[14]
Electrical resistivity and conductivity; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_resistivity_and_conductivity.
[15]
Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th Edition, 1973.
[16]
V. L. Thurmond, R. W. Potter II-, and M. A. Clynne. The Densities of Saturated Solutions of NaCl and KCl from 10° to 105°C, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, Open File Report, 1984. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1984/0253/report.pdf; Ionic radius; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionic_radius.
[17]
Atomic radii of the elements (data page), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_radii_of_the_elements_(data_page).
[18]
Ionic radius, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionic_radius; (Redirected from Ionic Radius).
[19]
Shuleikin, V. V. Brief Oceanography, Hydrometeorology Press, Moscow-Leningrad, 1959. (Photo for Mono-crystal of ice)
[20]
Bernal I. D. and Fowler R. H. J. of Chemical Physics, 1933, V. 1: 518.
[21]
Burton E. F. and W. F. Oliver, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 1935 153, 166-172, doi: 10.1098/ rspa. 1935.0229.
[22]
PU Peimin, PU Jiangping, ZHU Zhengbin, Liquid water skin structure & its influence on atmospheric electric fields, SCIREA, Journal of Geosciences, 2017, 2 (2): 39-55. (http://www.scirea.org/journal/PaperInformation?JournalID=17000&PaperID=334). (http://article.scirea.org/pdf/17010.pdf).
[23]
PU, Peimin, PU, Jiangping. Optimized structure of aqua-eco-floating island systems and its applications for suppressing evaporation from water surface, et cetera. 《The rise of China as a powerful country with talents》, Ed. in Chief: Zen Ronglu. 2018: 126-132. Footnote, f. n. 2: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Properties_of_water.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186