The agricultural production sector is a backbone of the Ethiopian economy. In Ethiopia 95% of the total area is cultivated by smallholder farmers and contribute 90% of the total agricultural output. As reviewed from different literatures household demographic characteristics, household resource endowments, social, cultural, infrastructural, institutional and economic factors influence the level of smallholders’ commercialization. In this regard, to enhance smallholder’s commercialization generating improved high yielding varieties and adoption of these newly released technologies through agricultural research is crucial, public investments in infrastructural development and government policies that improve institutional arrangements are essential. Development agents at rural peasant association have to be properly advice farmers on agricultural production and marketing, farmers’ cooperative and farmers’ organization are required to enable smallholder farmers collectively accessing agricultural inputs, credit, information and marketing of their produce. In general, based on the review of smallholders’ commercialization rigorous efforts of all stakeholders including governments, research institutions, universities, farmers, NGOs, and development practitioners are essential to eliminate the existing bottlenecks to improve the livelihood of smallholder farmers.
Smallholder Farmers Agricultural Commercialization in Ethiopia: A Review, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 9, No. 3,
2020, pp. 67-74.
MoARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). 2010. Ethiopia’s Agricultural and Sector Policy and Investment Framework (PIF): 2010-2020, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
MoFED (Ministry of Finance and Economic Development). 2015. Growth and Transformational Plan (GTP 2015-2020). Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
Olwande, J., Smale, M., Mathenge, M. K., Place, F. and Mithofer, D. 2015. Agricultural marketing by smallholders in Kenya: A comparison of maize, kale and dairy. Food Policy 52: 22-32.
Gebremedhin, B. and Jaleta, M. 2010. Commercialization of smallholders: Does market orientation translate into market participation? Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian farmers project Working Paper 22. Nairobi, Kenya.
Barret, C. B. 2008. Smallholder Market Participation: Concepts and Evidence from Eastern and Southern Africa. Journal of Food Policy, 34, 299-317.
Pingali, L. P and Rosegrant, M. W. 1995. Agricultural commercialization and diversification: Process and policies. Food Policy 20 (3): 171-185.
Romer P. 1994. New goods, old theory and the welfare cost of trade restrictions. Journal of Development Economics 43 (1): 5–38.
Salami, A., Abdul, K. B and Zuzuna, B. 2010. Smallholder Agriculture in East Africa: Trends, Constraints and Opportunities, Working Papers Series No. 105 Africa Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia.
Dixon, J., Taniguchi, K. and Wattenbach, H. 2003. Approaches to assessing the impact of globalization on African smallholders: Household and village economy modeling. Proceedings of a Working Session on Globalization and the African Smallholder Study. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Bank, Rome, Italy.
Muller, C. 2014. A test of separability of consumption and production decisions of farm households in Ethiopia. Journal of Poverty Alleviation and International Development 5 (1): 1-18.
Diao, X., Alemayehu Seyoum, Yu, B., and Pratt, A. N. 2010. Economic Importance of Agriculture for Sustainable Development and Poverty reduction: the case study of Ethiopia. OECD project report on Global report on Agriculture, policies for Agricultural development, poverty Reduction and Food Security OECD Headquarters, Paris.
Gebre-ab N. 2006. Commercialization of smallholder agriculture in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Notes and Papers Series No. 3. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2016. Agricultural Sample Survey 2015/2016 (2008 E. C): Report on area and production of major crops in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa.
Moti Jaleta, Berhanu Gebremedhin and Hoekstra D. 2009. Smallholder commercialization: Processes, determinants and impact. Discussion Paper No. 18. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian Farmers Project, ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 55 pp.
Pingali P, Khwaja Y and Meijer M. 2005. Commercializing small farmers: Reducing transaction costs. FAO/ESA Working Paper No. 05-08. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Rome, Italy.
Von Braun, J., Bouis, H. and Kennedy, E. 1994. Conceptual Framework, In: Agricultural Commercialization, Economic Development and Nutrition, Chapter 2, the Johns Hopkins University Press, London.
Johann Kirsten, Mariam Mapila, Julius Okello and Sourovi De. 2012. Managing Agricultural Commercialization for Inclusive Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Global Development Network (GDN, New Delhi.
Efa Gobena, Degye Goshu, Tinsae Demisie and Tadesse Kenea. 2016. Determinants of market participation and intensity of marketed surplus of teff producers in Bacho and Dawo districts of Oromia State, Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Vol. 5 (2), pp. 020-032.
Boka Gutu T. 2017. Climate Change Challenges, Smallholders’ Commercialization, and Progress out of Poverty in Ethiopia, Working Paper Series N° 253, African Development Bank, Abidjan, Cote divoire.
Solomon Asfaw, Bekele Shiferaw and Franklin Simtowe. 2010. Does Technology Adoption Promote Commercialization? Evidence from Chickpea Technologies in Ethiopia International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Nairobi, Kenya.
Gebreslassie Hailu, Kebede Manjure and Kiros Meles Aymut. 2015. Crop Commercialization and smallholder farmers` livelihood in Tigray region, Ethiopia.
Zhou, S., Minde, I. J. and Mtigwe, B. 2013. “Smallholder agricultural commercialization for income growth and poverty alleviation in southern Africa: A review”, African Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 8 (22), pp. 2599-2608.
Andrea Woolverton and David Neven. 2014. Understanding smallholder farmer attitudes to commercialization –The case of maize in Kenya. Rome.
Paul J. Strasberg, T. S. Jayne, Takashi Yamano, James Nyoro, Daniel Karanja, and John Strauss. 1999. Effects of Agricultural Commercialization on Food Crop input use and Productivity in Kenya. Working Paper No. 71 Michigan State University.
Yenesew Sewnet, Edo Elemo and Dereje Derso. 2016. A review of Agricultural Research, Extension and Farmers linkage in Ethiopia. Agriculture and Biology journal of North America. ISSN Print: 2151-7517, ISSN Online: 2151-7525.
Tsedeke Abate, Bekele Shiferaw, Setegn Gebeyehu, Berhanu Amsalu, Kassaye Negash, Kebebew Assefa, Million Eshete, Sherif Aliye and Jürgen Hagmann. 2011. A systems and partnership approach to agricultural research for development Lessons from Ethiopia. Outlook on agriculture. Vol 40, No 3, 2011, pp 213–220.
Kumilachew Alamerie. 2016. Commercialization Behavior of Smallholder Potato Producers the case of Kombolcha Woreda, Eastern part of Ethiopia. Economics of Agriculture. UDC 633.49: 631.1.017.3: 330.13 (63).
Edward Martey. 2014. Market Information and Extent of Agricultural Commercialization: Empirical Evidence from Smallholder Farmers in Effutu Municipality of Ghana American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 4 (12): 1680-1696.
Tadele Mamo, Wudineh Getahun, Agajie Tesfaye, Ali Chebil, Tesfaye Solomon, Aden Aw-Hassan, Tolessa Debele and Solomon Assefa. 2017. Analysis of wheat commercialization in Ethiopia: The case of SARD-SC wheat project innovation platform sites. African Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 12 (10), pp. 841-849.
Yodit Balcha (2013). ‘Prospects of Transforming Subsistence Agriculture into Sustainable Livelihoods: A case-study of the Ribb sub-Catchment, Ethiopia’. Uppsala University, Sweden.