Chocolate spot is a serious disease that cause yield reduction on Faba bean crop, thus, effective management is essential. The objective of this review work was to review available to manage chocolate spot of faba bean with host resistance and fungicides. There are many biotic and abiotic factors which hampers Faba bean production in Ethiopia. From biotic factors chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae Sard.) is the major fungal disease hampering Faba bean production in Ethiopia.). It is a highly prevalent and destructive disease, causing yield loss up to 61% on a susceptible and 34% on tolerant Faba bean genotypes in the central highlands. But we can manage this economically important disease in manner which comprised by using different methods from these late sowing of Faba bean, mixed cropping of Faba bean with cereal crops, fungicides application and crop rotation were found better to reduce the disease and increased the grain yield. Therefore, use all available diseases management methods in combination that is IDM (Integrated Disease management) is better to reduce disease severity of chocolate spot.
Overview of Epidemiology, Biology and Integrated Management of Chocolate Spot (Botrytis fabae) of Faba Bean in Ethiopia, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 9, No. 2,
2020, pp. 22-27.
S. Pande, et al., Integrated foliar diseases management of legumes. In: International Conference on Grain Legumes: Quality Improvement, Value Addition and Trade, 14-16, Kanpur, India., 2009.
Yohannes, D., Faba bean (Vicia faba) in Ethiopia. Institute of bio diversity, conservation and Research (IBCR), Adiss Ababa, Ethiopia, 2000. 43.
Metayer, N., Vicia faba breeding for sustainable agriculture in Europe: Identification of regional priorities and definition of target genotypes. GIE Févérole, Paris, 2004. 5.
Singh, A. K., et al., An assessment of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) current status and future prospect. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2013. 8 (50): p. 6634-6641.
Taffa, E. T., C. F. Gurmessa, and S. S. W. Mariam, In vivo assay for antagonistic potential of fungal isolates against faba bean (Vicia faba L.) chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae Sard.). Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2013. 147 (898): p. 1-7.
Bahru, D. K., Review on: Response of Legume Crops to Rhizobium Inoculation and Inorganic Fertilizers (N, P, K and S) Application in Ethiopia. 2019. IJRIES Vol. 6 (4), ISSN (Online): 2394-1375.
CSA, Central Statistics Agency agricultural sample survey for Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.. 2016 / 2017.
Sahile, S., et al., Survey of chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) disease of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and assessment of factors influencing disease epidemics in northern Ethiopia. Crop Protection, 2008. 27 (11): p. 1457-1463.
El Sayed, F., S. Nakkoul, and P. Williams, Distribution of protein content in the world collection of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). FABIS newsletter-Faba Bean Information Service, 1982. Retrived from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236875015
Mussa, J., G. Dereje, and K. Gemechu, Procedures of faba bean improvement through hybridization. Technical manual, 2008 (21): p. 48.
Agegnehu, G. and R. Fessehaie, Response of faba bean to phosphate fertilizer and weed control on nitisols of Ethiopian highlands. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 2006. 1 (2): p. 281-290.
Estayih, A. Z., Managingement Chocolate Spot Of Faba Bean (Botrytis Fabae) Using Fungicides Integrated With Variety Of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.) In North Shewa, Central Highland Ethiopia.. 2018. Retrived from http://etd.dbu.edu.et/handle/123456789/323
Khan, H., et al., Faba bean breeding for drought-affected environments: A physiological and agronomic perspective. Field Crops Research, 2010. 115 (3): p. 279-286.
Sahile, S., et al., Pathogenic and genetic diversity of Botrytis fabae Sand. isolates from faba bean fields in different agro-ecological zones of Northern Ethiopia. Archives of phytopathology and plant protection, 2012. 45 (10): p. 1218-1236.
Gorfu, D. and Y. Hiskias, Yield losses of crops due to plant diseases in Ethiopia. Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia, 2001. Retrieved from agris.fao.org.
Cimmino, A., et al., Botrytone, a new naphthalenone pentaketide produced by Botrytis fabae, the causal agent of chocolate spot disease on Vicia faba. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2011. 59 (17): p. 9201-9206.
Torres, A. M., et al., Faba bean breeding for resistance against biotic stresses: towards application of marker technology. Euphytica, 2006. 147 (1-2): p. 67-80.
Bouhassan, A., M. Sadiki, and B. Tivoli, Evaluation of a collection of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes originating from the Maghreb for resistance to chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) by assessment in the field and laboratory. Euphytica, 2004. 135 (1): p. 55-62.
Mitiku, M., Integrated Management of Chocolate Spot (Botrytis fabae) Disease of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) in Ethiopia: A Review. 2017. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah 5 (9): 195-205. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1002638
Sahar, A., R. Z. El-Shennawy, and A. Ismail, Fungicidal management of chocolate spot of faba bean and assessment of yield losses due to the disease. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 2011. 56 (1): p. 27-35.
Beyene, A. T., et al., Gene action determining grain yield and chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) resistance in faba bean. Euphytica, 2016. 207 (2): p. 293-304.
Singh, A. K., et al., Ethnobotany of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) 2012: p. 431-450.
Horst, I., et al., TILLING mutants of Lotus japonicus reveal that nitrogen assimilation and fixation can occur in the absence of nodule-enhanced sucrose synthase. Plant Physiology, 2007. 144 (2): p. 806-820.
Özer, G. and H. Bayraktar, First report of Botrytis cinerea on Cornelian cherry. Australasian plant disease notes, 2014. 9 (1): p. 126.
Agrios, G. N., Plant pathology. 2005: Academic press. Retrieved from https://www.elsevier.com/books/plant-pathology/agrios/978-0-08-047378-9
Stoddard, F. L., et al., Integrated pest management in faba bean. Field Crops Research, 2010. 115: p. 308-318.
Samuel Sahile, et al., Effect of mixed cropping and fungicides on chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) of faba bean (Vicia faba) in Ethiopia. Crop protection, 2008. 27 (2): p. 275-282.
Terefe, H., et al., Effect of temperature on growth and sporulation of Botrytis fabae, and resistance reactions of faba bean against the pathogen. Journal of plant pathology & microbiology, 2015. 6: p. 7.
Beyene, A. T., Genetic analysis and characterization of faba bean (vicia faba) for resistance to chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) disease and yield in the Ethiopian highlands. 2014.
Honounik, S. and M. Bisri, Status of diseases of faba bean in the Mediterranean region and their control. Options Mediterraneennes. Serie A: Seminaires Mediterraneens (CIHEAM), 1991.
Mohamed, H., et al., Effect of planting date and number of fungicide sprays on foliar diseases and yield of faba bean. FABIS Newsletter, 1981. 3: p. 40-41.
You, M., et al., A new leaf blight disease of Trifolium dasyurum caused by Botrytis fabae. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 2009. 123 (1): p. 99.
Wunsch, M., Management of Botrytis gray mold of Lentils. 2013.
Sahile, S., et al., Potential antagonistic fungal species from Ethiopia for biological control of chocolate spot disease of faba bean. African Crop Science Journal, 2011. 19 (3): p. 197-209.
Harrison, J. G., The biology of Botrytis spp. on Vicia beans and chocolate spot disease e a review. Plant Pathology, 1988. 37: p. 168-201.
Denekea, S., et al., Integrated Management of Faba Bean Chocolate Spot (Botrytis Fabae Sard.) Through Host Resistance, Intercropping and Fungicide Applications in Arsi, Ethiopia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2018. 8 (5): p.
Sahile, S., et al., Evaluation of pathogenic isolates in Ethiopia for the control of chocolate spot in faba bean. African Crop Science Journal, 2009. 17 (4).
Teshome, E. and A. Tagegn, Integrated management of Chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae Sard.) of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) at highlands of Bale, south eastern Ethiopia. Res J Agric Environ Manage, 2013. 2: p. 011-014.