Planting Arrangement, Population Density and Fertilizer Application Rate for White Maize (Zea mays L.) Production in Bandarban Valley
On-farm experiments were conducted in the Bandarban valley during dry season, October 2015 through March, 2016 to investigate the possibility of introducing white maize as human food. Yield response of two maize hybrids (PSC 121 and KS 510) planted in three different row arrangements was evaluated in one experiment. The other experiment determined the optimum fertilizer rate for maize hybrids. Grain yield ranged between 7,103 kg and 10,126 kg per ha across hybrids and planting arrangements. Hybrid PSC 121 recorded 19% more yield than KS 510. Generally grain yield increased with increasing planting density. Planting in twin-rows giving 80,000 plants per ha produced 17.7% higher yield compared with planting in single rows 60 cm apart giving 66,667 plants per ha. Planting in twin-rows produced significantly higher yield compared with single rows. Application of fertilizers at 100% and 50% of recommended rate produced identical but significantly higher grain yield compared to 25% of recommended rates. Increase of maize grain yield was associated with the number of grains per ear and individual grain weight.
Mohammad Ali Akbar,
M. A. Siddique,
Mong Sanue Marma,
M. Moksedur Rahman,
M. Rafiqul Islam Molla,
M. Matiar Rahman,
M. Jafar Ullah,
Mohammad Ashraf Hossain,
Planting Arrangement, Population Density and Fertilizer Application Rate for White Maize (Zea mays L.) Production in Bandarban Valley, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2016, pp. 215-224.
CASSMAN, K. G., GRASSINI, P., VAN WART, J. Crop yield potential, yield trends and global food security in a changing climate. In: Rosenzweig, C., Hillel, D. (Eds.), Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems. Imperial College Press, London, p. 37, 2010.
CHEN, X., CUI, Z., FAN, M., VITOUSEK, P., ZHAO, M., MA, W., WANG, Z., ZHANG, W., YAN, X., YANG, J., DENG, X., GAO, Q., ZHANG, Q., GUO, S., REN, J., LI, S., YE, Y., WANG, Z., HUANG, J., TANG, Q., SUN, Y., PENG, X., ZHANG, J., HE, M., ZHU, Y., XUE, J., WANG, G., WU, L., AN, N., WU, L., MA, L., ZHANG, W., ZHANG, F. Producing more grain without environmental costs. Nature 514, 486, October 13, 2014.
DASS, S., KUMAR, A., JAT, S. L., PARIHAR, C. M., SINGH, A. K., CHIKKAPPA, G. K. JAT, M. L. Maize holds potential for diversification and livelihood security. Indian J. Agron. (Special Issue) 57: 86-91, 2012.
RAY, D. K., MUELLER, N. D., WEST, P. C., FOLEY, J. A. Yield trends are insufficient to double global crop production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8, e66428, 2013.
NUSS, E. T., TANUMIHARDJO, S. A. Maize: a paramount staple crop in the context of global nutrition. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 9: 417–436, 2010.
RANUM, P., PE˜NA-ROSAS, J. P., GARCIA-CASAL, M. N. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1312 (2014) 105–112 C doi: 10.1111/nyas.12396, 2014.
TIMSINA, J., JAT, M. L., MAJUMDAR, K. Rice-maize systems of South Asia: current status, future prospects and re- search priorities for nutrient management. Plant Soil, 335: 65–82, 2010.
ALI, M. Y, WADDINGTON, S. R, TIMSINA, J., D. HODSON, D., DIXON, J. Maize-rice cropping systems in Bangladesh: Status and research needs. J. of Agric. Sci. Technol. 3 (6): 35-53, 2009.
BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS (BBS). Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics 2014. Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016.
TIMSINA, J., MAJUMDAR, K. Improved Nutrient Management in Rice-Maize Cropping Systems: A Case Study. Better Crops South Asia. 6 (1): 25-26, 2012.
LEE, E. A., TOLLENAAR, D. M. Physiological basis of successful breeding strategies. Crop Sci. 47 (S3) S202–S215, 2007.
LEIBMAN, M., SHRYOCK, J. J., CLEMENTS, M. J.,. ALL, M. A., LOIDA, P. J., MCCLERREN, A. L., MCKINESS, Z. P., PHILLIPS, J. R., RICE, E. A., STARK, S. B. Comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop performance: natural variation, incremental improvements and economic impacts. Plant Biotechnology Journal 12: 941–950. doi: 10.1111/pbi.12202, 2014.
SANGOI, L. Understanding plant density effects on maize growth and development: an important issue to maximize grain yield. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, 31: 159-168, 2000.
ABUZAR, M. R., SADOZAI, G. U., BALOCH, M. S., BALOCH, A. A., H. SHAH, I., JAVAID, T., HUSSAIN, N. Effect of plant population densities on yield of maize. J. Animal Plant Sci. 21 (4): 692-695, 2011.
ZAMIR, M. S. I., A. H. AHMAD, H. M. R. JAVEED AND T. LATIF. Growth and yield behaviour of two maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) towards different plant spacing. Cercetări Agronomiceîn Moldova. 14 (2): 33-40, 2011.
EDWARDS, J. T., PURCELL, L. C., VORIES, E. D. Light interception and yield potential of short season maize hybrids in the Midsouth. Agron J. 97: 225–234, 2005.
OLSON, R. A., SANDERS, D. H. MAIZE PRODUCTION. IN: SPRAGUE, G. F. DUDLEY, J. W. Corn and corn improvement. American Society of Agronomy, Madison. pp. 639-686, 1988.
SARLANGUE, T., F. H. ANDRADE, P. A. CALVIÑO, AND L. C. PURCELL. Why do maize hybrids respond differently to variations in plant density? Agron. J. 99: 984–991. doi: 10.2134/agronj2006.0205, 2007.
TOLLENAAR, M. Physiological basis of genetic improvement of maize hybrid in Ontario from 1959 to 1988. Crop Sci., 31: 119-124, 1991.
LIU W., TOLLENAAR, M., SMITH, G. Within row plant spacing variability does not affect corn yield. Agron. J. 96: 275-280, 2004.
ALFORD, C. M., D. STEPHEN, MILLER AND J. T. CECIL. Using row spacing to increase crop competition with weeds. In: Proc. 4th Int. Crop Science Congress, Birsbane Australia, 26 September-1 October, 2004.
ANDRADE, F. H., SADRAS, V. O., VEGA, C. R. C., UHART, S., CIRILO, A., CANTARERO ECHARTE, L. Physiological determinants of crop growth and yield in maize, sunflower and soybean. J. Crop Improvement 14: 51-1001, 2005.
BISWAS, M., RAHMAN, A. H. M. M., AHMED, F. Effect of variety and planting geometry on the growth and yield of hybrid maize. J. Agric. Env. Sci. 3 (2): 27-32, 2014.
LIU, K., MA, B. L., LUAN, L. L, C. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium nutrient effects on grain filling and yield of high-yielding summer corn. J. Plant Nutr. 34 (10): 1516-153, 2011.
BENDER, R. R., HAEGELE, J. W., RUFFO, M. L., BELOW, F. E. Modern corn hybrids’ nutrient uptake patterns. Better Crops 97 (1): 7-10, 2013.
FAGERIA, N. K., BALIGAR, V. C. Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Adv. Agron. 88: 97-185, 2005.
SUBEDI, K. D., MA, B. L. Nitrogen uptake and partitioning in stay-green and leafy maize hybrids. Crop Sci. 45: 740-747, 2005.
TAJUL, M. I., ALAM, M. M., HUSSAIN, S. M. M., NAHER, K., RAFII, M. Y., LATIF, M. A. Influence of plant population and nitrogen fertilizer at various levels on growth and growth efficiency of maize. The Scientific World J. Article ID 193018, 9 pp. DOI.org/10.1155/2013/193018, 2013.
IBRAHIM, S. A. AND KANDIL, H. Growth, Yield and Chemical Constituents of Corn (Zea Affected by Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization under Different Irrigation Intervals. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3, 1112-1120, 2007.
BANERJEE, H., GOSWAMI, R., DUTTA, S. K., CHAKRABORTY, S., MAJUMDAR, K. Farm typology-based phosphorus management for maize in West Bengal. Better Crops- South Asia 9 (1): 8-11,
KHAN, F., KHAN, S., FAHAD, S., FAISAL, S., HUSSAIN, S., ALI, S., ALI, A. Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on the Phenology and Yield of Maize Varieties. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2582- 2590. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.517272, 2014.
KARLEN, D. L., FLANNERY, R. L., AND SADLER, E. J. Aerial accumulation and partitioning of nutrients by corn. Agron. J. 80, 232-242, 1988.
SMID, A. E., AND PEASLEE, D. E. Growth and carbon dioxide assimilation by corn as related to potassium nutrition and simulated canopy shading. Agron. J. 68: 904-908, 1976.
SOIL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (SRDI). User’s Manual on Land and Soil Resources of Bandarban Sadar Upazila (in Bengali), Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 212 pp., 2010.
VAUGHAN, A. K. F. The relation between the concentration of boron in the reproductive and vegetative organ of maize plants and their development. Rhod. J. Agric. Res. 15: 163– 170, 1977.
HOSSAIN, M. A., JAHIRUDDIN, M. F. KHATUN, M. F. Response of maize varieties to zinc fertilization. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 36 (3): 437-447, 2011.
SHORROCKS, V. M., BLAZA, A. J. The boron nutrition of maize. Field Crop 25: 25–27, 1973.
KHUONG, TQ, TAN, PS AND WITT, C. Improving of maize yield and profitability through site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and planting density. Omonrice 16: 88-92, 2008.
HANWAY, J. J., RITCHIE, S. W. How a Corn Plant Develops: Special Report No. 48, Iowa State University, 1984.
HELLEVANG, K. J. Grain moisture content effects and management. AE-905 (Revised), North Dakota State University Extension Service, Fargo, ND, USA. 8 pp., 1995.
BELFIELD, S., BROWN, C. NSW Department of Primary Industry, Australia. 50 pp., 2008.
MAPHUMULO, S. G., DERERA, J., QWABE, F., FATO, P., GASURA, E., MAFUNGOYA, P. Heritability and genetic gain for grain yield and path coefficient analysis of some agronomic traits in early-maturing maize hybrids. Euphytica 206: 225-244, 2015.
SHARIFI, R. S., SEDGHI, M., GHOLIPOURI, A. Effect of population density on yield and yield attributes of maize hybrids. Res. J. Biol. Sci. 4 (4): 375-379, 2009.
BUREN, L. L. Plant characteristics associated with barrenness in maize. A Ph.D. dissertation submitted to Iowa State University, Ames, IA. 257 pp., 1970.
SHAFI, M., BAKHT, J., ALI, S., KHAN, H., KHAN, M. A., SHARIF, M. Effect of planting density on phenology, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Pak. J. Bot., 44 (2): 691-696, 2012.
AL-NAGGAR, A. M., SHABANA, R. A., ATTA, M. M. M, AL-KHALIL, M. M. M. Maize response to elevated plant density combined with lowered N-fertilizer rate is genotype-dependent. Crop J. 3: 9 6 – 1 0 9, 2015.
CARENA, M. J., CROSS, H. Z. Plant density and maize germplasm improvement in the northern corn belt. Maydica 48: 105-111, 2005.
MALAVIARACHCHI, M. A. P. W. K., KARUNARATHNE, K. M., JAYAWARDANE, S. N. Influence of plant density on yield of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) under supplementary irrigation. J. Agric. Sci. 3 (2): 58-66, 2007.
MONNEVAUX, P., ZAIDI, P. H., SANCHEZ, C. Population density and low nitrogen affects yield associated traits in tropical maize. Crop Sci. 45: 533-545, 2005.
ROBLES, M. R., CIAMPITTI, I. A., VYN, T. J. Responses of maize hybrids to twin-row spatial arrangement at multiple plant densities. Agron. J. 104: 1747-1756, 2012.
ALI, M. Y., WADDINGTON, S. R., TIMSINA, J., HODSON, D., DIXON, J. Maize-rice cropping systems in Bangladesh: Status and research needs. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 3 (6): 35-52, 2009.
ALAM, M. M., M. M. BASHER, KARIM, A., RAHMAN, M. A., ISLAM, M. R. 2009.2009. Effect of rate of nitrogen fertilizer and population density on the yield and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays) (in Bangladesh). Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2003, 6: 1770-1773, 2009.
BOOMSMA, C. R., SANTINI, J. B., TOLLENAAR, M., VYN, T. J. Maize morphological response to intense crowding and low nitrogen availability. An analysis and review. Agron. J. 101: 1426-1452, 2009.
FARNHAM, D. E. Row spacing, plant density and hybrid effects on corn grain yield and moisture. Agron. J. 93: 1049–1053. doi: 10.2134/agronj2001.9351049x, 2001.
THELEN, K. D. Interaction between row spacing and yield: Why it works. www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/cm/. Crop Manage. doi: 10.1094/CM-2006–0227–03-RV, 2006.
HAEGELE, J. W., BECKER, R. J., HENNINGER, A. S., BELOW, F. E. Row arrangement, phosphorus fertility, and hybrid contributions to managing increased plant density of maize. Agron. J. 106: 1–9, 2014.
FISCHER, R. A., EDMEADES, G. O. Breeding and cereal yield progresses. Crop Sci. 50: S85 – S98, 2010.
GOZUBENLI, H., KILINK, M., SENER, O., KONUSKAN, O. Effects of single and twin row planting on yield and yield components in maize. Asian J. Plant Sci. 3 (2) 203-206, DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2004.203.206, 2004.
JACOBS, B. J., PEARSON, C. J. Potential yield of maize determined by rates of growth and development of ears. Field Crops Res. 27: 281-298, 1991.
SANGOI, L. AND R. J. SALVADOR, Influence of plant height and of leaf number on maize production at high plant densities. Pesqui. Agro. Brasilaria, 33: 297–306, 1998.
REYNOLDS, M. P., SAINT PIERRE, C., SAAD, A. S. I., VARGAS, M., CONDON, A. G., Evaluating potential genetic gains in wheat associated with stress-adaptive trait expression in elite genetic resources under drought and heat stress. Crop Sci. 47, S172–S189, 2007.
RICHARDS, R. A., REBETZKE, G. J., WATT, M., CONDON, A. G., SPIELMEYER, W., DOLFERUS, R. Breeding for im¬proved water productivity in temperate cereals: Pheno¬typing, quantitative trait loci, markers and the selection environment. Funct. Plant Biol. 37, 85–97, 2010.
SELASSIE, Y. G. The effect of N fertilizer rates on agronomic parameters, yield components and yields of maize grown on Alfisols of North western Ethiopia. Environ Syst Res 4: 21, 2015.
LIU, K., MA, B. L., LUAN, L. L, C. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium nutrient effects on grain filling and yield of high-yielding summer corn. J. Plant Nutr. 34 (10): 1516-1531, 2011.
YONG, T., LIEU, X., LIU, W, SU, B., SONG, C., YANG, F., WANG, X., YANG, W. Effects of reduced N application rate on yield and nutrient uptake and utilization in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system (in Chinese). Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 25 (2): 474-82, 2014.