Effect of Flower Farm Effluents on Diversity and Composition of Macro Invertebrates in Marura Wetland
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 207-214
Received: Aug. 28, 2016;
Accepted: Sep. 12, 2016;
Published: Oct. 9, 2016
Views 4283 Downloads 179
Daniel Albert Wandera, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya
Monicah Nanjala Mukhwana, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya
Follow on us
Wetlands are important sites for biological conservation due to their rich biodiversity which possess high productivity. They also offer shelter to many organisms and offers services such as water purification and flood control. However, biodiversity in wetlands has been reduced due to human activities that cause pollution like, flower farm effluents which are discharged directly to wetlands or river systems. Four water quality parameters; DO, BOD, pH, TDS, TSS and macro-invertebrates composition were investigated at four different stations (S1, S2, S3, S4) adjacent to Equator Flower Farm along the Marura wetland. PAST program was used to calculate diversity indices and richness in the macroinvertebrates communities. Station S2 had the highest temperature (22.6°C), whereas S4 had the lowest temperature (19.6°C). The pH value did not vary along the stations (8.3-6.3). The DO level fluctuated along the river, station S1 had highest level of 3.6 m/l and lowest station S3 had 0.8mg/l. TSS and TDS did not show significant variations, while BOD levels varied with different stations. The highest value of TN was recorded at Station 3 (0.33±0.045mgl-1). There was no significant difference (p=0.055) in three stations (S1, S2, S4) except S3. In total 10 orders, 30 genera and 30 families of macroinvertebrates were identified. The orders; Odonata, Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera were the main macroinvertebrates found in all station, while the members of orders; Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta Mollusca, Gnathobellidae and Isopoda were few in all sampling stations. Station S2 and S4 had the highest species diversity compared to station S1 and S3 which had the lowest diversity. DO, BOD and temperature were found to have a significant effect on abundance and composition of benthic organisms with S3 having less abundance due to its proximity to the flower farm.
Bioindicators, Benthic Macroinvertebrate, Wetlands, Water Quality
To cite this article
Daniel Albert Wandera,
Monicah Nanjala Mukhwana,
Effect of Flower Farm Effluents on Diversity and Composition of Macro Invertebrates in Marura Wetland, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2016, pp. 207-214.
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
APHA (American Public Health Association), 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. Washington, D. C. American Public Health Association, America Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation. https://www.apha.org/. (accessed on October 2014).
Bailey R. G., Busulwa H. & Williams A. 1994. The aquatic habitats and Fisheries of the Rwenzori Mountains Rivers, Uganda. Darwin Initiative Report no. 14. Kings College London, London, P. 106. (http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4020-9726-3).
Bowman M. T., Keith M. S., Reid R. A. & Scott L. D. 2006. Temporal response of stream benthic macro-invertebrates’ communities to the synergistic effects of anthropogenic acidification and natural drought events. Freshwater Biol, 51: 768-782, doi: 10.1111/j.13652427.2006.01516.x.
Clenaghan, C., Giller P. S., O′Halloran J. & Hernan R. 1998. Stream macroinvertebrate communities in a conifer-afforested catchment in Ireland: Relationships to physico- chemical and biotic factors. – Journal of Fish Biology, 14, 165-75. doi: 10.1046/j.1365- 2427.1998.00330.x.
GEF (Global Environmental Facility) (2004). Western Kenyaintegrated ecosystem project; Executive Summary. Available athttp://www.gefweb.org/Documents/Council-Documents/-C23/. (Accessed on September 2016).
Gerber, A. and Gabriel, M. J. M. 2002. Aquatic Invertebrates of South African Rivers Field Guide. Institute of water quality studies, department of water affairs and forestry. First edition. http://extension.usu.edu/water quality (accessed in September 2015).
Gill K. 2008. Identification Guide to Fresh Water Macro invertebrates Stroud Water Research Centre. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. 2001. PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4 (1). Stroud Water Research Centre. Pennsylvania 19311. 184
Jaetzold, Ralph, and Helmut Schmidt. 1983. Farm management handbook of Kenya. 4 vols. Nairobi: Kenya Ministry of Agriculture. pp. 739. http://www.abebooks.com/?cm_sp=TopNav-_-Results-_-Logo. (accessed on December 187 2014).
Mandaville S. M. 2002. Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Freshwaters-Taxa Tolerance Values, Metrics, and Protocols. (Project H-1) Soil and Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax press. 54 pp.
Masese F. O., Muchiri M. & Raburu P. O. 2009. Macroinvertebrate assemblages as biological indicators of water quality in the Moiben River, Kenya. African journal of aquatic sciences. 193 2009, 34 (1): (15-26) doi: 10.2989/AJAS.2009.34.1.2.727
Mitsch M. J. & Gosselink J. G. 2007. Wetlands 4th Edition. (Hardcover) (2007).
Robert J. Miltner and Edward T. Rankin. 1998. Blackwell Science Ltd, Freshwater Biology, 40, 145–158.
Postel S. 1992. Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. World-watch environmental series. London: Edward Arnorld. ISBN: 0-393-31744-7. 240 pp.
Quinn J. M., Cooper A. B., Davies-Colley R. J., Rutherford J. C., Williamson R. B. 1997. Land-use effects on habitat, water quality, periphyton, and benthic macroinvertebrates in Waikato, New Zealand, hill-country streams. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research (special İssue): 32: 579–597.
Wetzel G. R. 1975. Limnology 2nd Edition. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 743 pp.
Winterbourn, and M. J. Collier, K. J (eds). 2000. New Zealand stream invertebrates: ecology and implications for management. New Zealand Limnological Society (NZFSS), Christchurch. P. 455.