Structure and Regeneration Status of Menagesha Amba Mariam Forest in Central Highlands of Shewa, Ethiopia
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2015, Pages: 184-194
Received: Jul. 7, 2015; Accepted: Jul. 21, 2015; Published: Jul. 30, 2015
Views 5406      Downloads 276
Abiyou Tilahun, Department of Biology, College of Natural Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
Teshome Soromessa, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Science Faculty, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Ensermu Kelbessa, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Science Faculty, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study was conducted in Menagesha Amba Mariam Forest, a dry evergreen afromontane forest in central highlands of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to determine vegetation structure, and regeneration status of the forest. Sixty- nine sample plots (20 m x 20 m) were laid following altitudinal gradient and each quadrat has a 125 m altitudinal drop. Herbaceous species were collected from five (1 m x 1 m) sub-plots laid at four corners each and one at the centre of the large quadrat. All plant species found in each plot were recorded, collected, pressed and identified following Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and height were measured for trees and shrubs having DBH > 2.5 cm. The analysis of vegetation revealed that the forest possesses the highest number of DBH, height and density of species at the lower classes. Vertical stratification revealed that most of the species in the Menagesha Amba Mariam Forest were found in the lower storey. The total density of tree stems per hectare and basal area of trees with DBH >2.5 cm were 4,362.08 and 84.17 m2 ha-1 respectively. The total density of tree species greater than 2 cm and 10 cm DBH were found to be 860.56 which is greater than those with DBH >20 cm (197.46). Thus, the regeneration prevalence of small individuals (seedlings and saplings) was at good condition. Menagesha Amba Mariam Forest, which is one of the remnant dry evergreen afromontane forests in central Ethiopia, is under high degree of anthropogenic impact, which needs further attention as it is quite close to the nearby towns.
Altitudinal Gradient, Density, Dry Evergreen Afro Montane Forest, Regeneration, Structure
To cite this article
Abiyou Tilahun, Teshome Soromessa, Ensermu Kelbessa, Structure and Regeneration Status of Menagesha Amba Mariam Forest in Central Highlands of Shewa, Ethiopia, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2015, pp. 184-194. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20150404.16
Bekele, T. (1993) Vegetation Ecology of Remnant Afromontane Forests on the Central Plateau of Shewa, Ethiopia. Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. 79:1-59.
Bekele, T. (1994) Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology: Studies on Remnant Afromontane Forest on the Central Plateau of Shewa, Ethiopia. Acata Universities Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
Chaffey, D.R. (1979) Southwest Ethiopia Forest Inventory Project, a Reconnaissance Inventory of Forest in Southwest Ethiopia. Land Resources Development Centre, Tolworth Tower Surbition Survey, England.
Coetzee, J.A. (1978) Phytogeogarphical aspects of the montane forests of the chain of mountains on the eastern side of Africa. Erdwiss Forsch. 11: 482-494.
Demissew, S. (1980) A study on the structure of a montane forest. The Menagesha-Suba State Forest. Unpublished M.Sc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
Demissew, S. (1988) The Floristic composition of the Menagesha State Forest and the Need to Conserve Such Forest in Ethiopia. Mount. Res. Devt. 8: 243-247.
Denu, D. (2007) Floristic composition and ecological study of Bibita forest (Gurda Farda), southwest Ethiopia, Unpublished MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
Eshete, A., Teketay, D. and Hulten, H. H. (2005) The Socio-Economic Importance and Status of Populations of Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst in Northern Ethiopia: The Case of North Gondar Zone. Forests Trees and Livelihoods, 15: 55-74.
Friis, I. (1986) The forest Vegetation of Ethiopia. Acta Univ. Ups. Symb. Bot. Ups XXVI: 31-47.
Friis, I. (1992) Forest and Forest trees of North East Tropical Africa. New Bulletin, Additional series, XV: 1-396.
Friis, I. and Tadesse, M. (1990) The evergreen forests of tropical Northeast Africa. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg. 23a: 249-263.
Friis, I., Rasmussen, F.N. and Vollesen, K. (1982) Studies in the flora and vegetation of Southwest Ethiopia. Opera Botanica 63: 8-70.
Gebre Egziabher, T.B. (1986) Ethiopian vegetation – past, present and future. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci. 9: 1-13.
Gebre Egziabher, T.B. (1988) Vegetation and environment of the mountains of Ethiopia: implications for utilisation and conservation. Mount. Res. Dev. 8: 211-216.
Gebre Egziabher, T.B. (1991) Diversity of Ethiopian flora. In: Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia, pp. 75-81, (J.M.M Engels, J.G. Hawkes & Melaku Worede, eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gilbert, E.F. (1970) Mount Wachacha: A botanical Commentary. Walia 2: 3-12.
Goldsmith, F. B., Harrison, C. M. and Morton, A. J. (1986) Description and analysis of vegetation. In: Methods in Plant Ecology, (Moore, P.D. and Chapman, S. B. eds). Black Well Scientific Publications, Oxford. Pp. 437- 515.
Greig-Smith, P. (1983) Quantitative Plant Ecology (3rd ed.). Butterworths, London.
Grub, P.J., Lloyd, J. R., Pennington, J. D. & Whitmore, J.C. (1963). A comparison of montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. I. The forest structure, physiognomy and floristics.
Haugen, T. (1992) Woody vegetation of Borana, South Ethiopia, a study on the main vegetation types of the area. SINET: Ethiopi. J. Sci. 15: 117-130.
Hedberg, O. (1951) Vegetation belts of the East African Mountains. Sven. Bot. Tidskr. 45:140-204.
Hedberg, O. (1957) Afroalpine vascular plants, a taxonomic revision. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 15 (1): 1-411.
Hutchings, M. J. (1986) Plant population biology. In: Methods in Plant Ecology, (Moore, P. D. and Chapman, S. B. eds). Black Well Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp.377- 435.J. Ecol. 51: 567-610.
Kent, M and Coker, P. (1992) Vegetation Description and Analysis. A practical approach. Bolhaven Printing Press, London. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. New York. pp 547.
Lamprecht, H., (1989) Silviculture in the tropics¬ Tropical forest ecosystem and their tree species, Possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. T2 Verlagsgesselschaft GmbH, Postatch 1164, D101 RoBdort, Republic of Germany Pp 290-296.
Miehe, G. and Miehe, S. (1994). Ericaceous Forests and Heath lands in the Bale Mountains of South Ethiopia: Ecology and man’s Impact. Stiftung Walderhaltung in Africa, Hamburg.
Mooney, H.F. (1963). An account of two journeys to the Araenna Mountains in Bale province (Southeast Ethiopia), 1958 and 1959-1960. Proc. Linn. Soci. 172: 127-147.
Mueller-Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. (1974). Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology.
Pichi-Sermolli, R.E.G. (1957) Una carta geobotanica dell’ Africa Orientale (Eritrea, Etiopia, Somalia). Webbia 13: 15-132.
Shannon, C.E. and Wiener, W. (1949). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois, Chicago, USA.
Sharew, H. (1982) An Ecological Study of a Forest in Jemjem in Sidamo. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa. Unpubli.
Shibru, S. and Balcha, B. (2004) Composition, structure and regeneration status of woody species in Dindin Natural Forest, Southeast Ethiopia; An implication for conservation. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Science 3:15-35.
Soromessa, T. and Demissew, S. (2002) Some uses of plants by the Benna, Tsemay and Zeyise people, southern Ethiopia. EJNR 4 (1): 107-122.
Soromessa, T., Teketay, D. and Demissew, S. (2004) Ecological study of the vegetation in Gamo Gofa zone, southern Ethiopia. Tropical Ecology 45: 209-221.
Tadesse, M. (1992) A survey of the evergreen forests of Ethiopia. NAPRECA Monograph Series No. 2: 1-18.
Teketay, D. (2001) Deforestation, Wood Famine, and Environmental Degradation in Ethiopia's Highland Ecosystems: Urgent Need for Action. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC Africa), Kusami, Ghana. Northeast African Studies 8: 53-76.
Uhlig, S.K. (1988) Mountain forests and upper tree limit on the southeastern plateau of Ethiopia. Mount. Res. Dev. 8: 227-234.
Uhlig, S.K. and Uhlig, K. (1990) The floristic composition of a natural montane forest in southeastern Ethiopia. Feddes Repert. 101: 227-234.
Van der Maarel, E. (1979). Transformation of cover abundance values in phytosociology and its effects on community. Vegetatio 39: 97-114.
Von Breitenbach, G. (1961). Forests and woodlands of Ethiopia, a geobotanical contribution to the knowledge of the principal plant communities of Ethiopia, with special regards to forestry. Ethiop. For. Rev. 1: 5-16.
Von Breitenbach, G. (1963). Indigenous Trees of Ethiopia. Ethiopian Forestry Association, Addis Ababa.
Westphal, E. (1975). Agriculture in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa/Wageningen (College of Agriculture, Haileselassie I University and the center for agricultural publication and documentation. Wageningen Agricultural University).
Woldu, Z. (1985) Variation in grassland vegetation on the central plateau of shewa, Ethiopia in relation to edaphic factors and grazing conditions. Doctoral thesis, Uppsala University Dissertations Botanicae, 84, J.Cramer,Vaduz.
Woldu, Z. and Backeus, I. (1991) The Shrubland Vegetation in Western Shewa, Ethiopia and its Possible Recovery. J. Veg. Sci. 2: 173-180.
Woldu, Z., Feoli, E. and Nigatu, L. (1989) Partitioning an elevation gradient of vegetation from southeastern Ethiopia by probability methods. Vegetation 18:189-198.
Yeshitela, K. and Bekele, T. (2003)The woody species composition and structure of Masha-Anderacha forest, Southwestern Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. of boil. Sci.. 2 (1):32-48.
Zewdie, A. (2007) Comparative Floristic study on Menagesha-Suba State Forest on Years 1980 and 2006, Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
Muluken Mekuyie Fenta. Human-Wildlife Conflicts: Case Study in Wondo Genet District, Southern Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2014, pp. 352-362. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20140305.14
Siboniso M. Mavuso, Absalom M. Manyatsi, Bruce R. T. Vilane. Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Coping Strategies at Malindza, a Rural Semi-Arid Area in Swaziland. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp. 86-92. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20150303.14
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186