Survey of Nematode Destroying Fungi from Selected Vegetable Growing Areas in Kenya
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2015, Pages: 159-164
Received: Jan. 19, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 18, 2015; Published: Jul. 2, 2015
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Authors
Wachira P. M., School of biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Muindi J. N., Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Catholic University of East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya
Okoth S. A., School of biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
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Abstract
Plant parasitic nematodes cause up-to 5% yield losses to a wide range of economic crops. In Kenya vegetables yield loss attributed to plant parasitic nematodes is estimated to 80%. Over the years, nematode control has heavily on the use of chemical nematicides which unfortunately leads to biological magnification and elimination of the beneficial microorganisms in the soil. This has triggered a growing interest in search of alternate management strategies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to document nematode destroying fungi in selected major vegetable growing areas in Kenya as a step towards developing self-sustaining system for management of plant parasitic nematodes. Soil samples were collected from five vegetable production zones in Kenya which were Kinare, Kabete, Athi-river, Machakos and Kibwezi and transported to the laboratory for extraction of the nematode destroying fungi. Soil sprinkle technique as described by Jaffee et al., (1996) was used to isolate the fungi from the soil while identification was done using identification keys described by Delgado et al.,(2001). From the study a total of 171 fungi isolates were identified as nematode destroying fungi. The highest population was recorded at Kabete area recording 33.9% of the total record, followed by Machakos, Kibwezi, Athi-river and the least in Kin are with 24.6, 22.2, 11.7 and 7. 6% of the total population in that order. Arthrobotrys was the most frequent genera with a mean occurrence of 7.3 followed by Monacrosporium with 6 and Stylophage with 5.2. A.dactyloides was significantly (P=0.002) affected by the agro-ecological zones with the highest occurrence being recorded in Kabete and the least in Athi-river. The highest diversity index and species richness of nematode destroying fungi was recorded in Kibwezi while the least was recorded in Athi-river. The genera Arthrobotrys had the highest number of trapped nematodes with a total population of 57, followed by Monacrosporium and least was Stylopage with 45 and 36 respectively, within a period of 104 hours. From the study, it is evident that agricultural practices affect the occurrence and diversity of nematode destroying fungi and Arthrobotrys can be developed as a bio-control agent for management of plant parasitic nematodes.
Keywords
Arthrobotrys, Biological Control, Plant Parasitic Nematodes
To cite this article
Wachira P. M., Muindi J. N., Okoth S. A., Survey of Nematode Destroying Fungi from Selected Vegetable Growing Areas in Kenya, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2015, pp. 159-164. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20150404.12
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