Greenwater, Marine Bacillus subtilis HS1 Probiotic and Synbiotic Enriched Artemia and Rotifers Improved European Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax Larvae Early Weaning Length Growth, Survival, Water and Bacteriology quality
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2015, Pages: 45-52
Received: Sep. 16, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 16, 2015;
Published: Nov. 29, 2015
Views 4688 Downloads 142
Salem Ahmed Md., Fish Reproduction & Spawning Lab., Aquaculture Division, National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries (NIOF), Quiet Bay Castle, El-Anfoshy, Alexandria, Egypt
Nour A. M., Animal and Fish Production Dep., Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University
Srour T. M., Animal and Fish Production Dep., Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University
Assem S. S., Fish Reproduction & Spawning Lab., Aquaculture Division, National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries (NIOF), Quiet Bay Castle, El-Anfoshy, Alexandria, Egypt
Ibrahim H. A., Marine Microbiology Lab., Marine Environment Division, (NIOF), Alexandria, Egypt
El-Sayed H. S., Fish Reproduction & Spawning Lab., Aquaculture Division, National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries (NIOF), Quiet Bay Castle, El-Anfoshy, Alexandria, Egypt
The present study conducted in Fish Reproduction & Spawning Lab., NIOF, Alexandria, Egypt. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax newly hatched larvae from 8 dph to the 40 dph was reared according to (Süzer et al., 2011). The 6 tanks was green water with N. salina Algal count not less than 300000 cell/ml. The experimental treatments using green water using N. salina as positive control (G), green water plus marine probiotic bacteria (G+MP) and green water plus synbiotic (G+S).4 hours enriched rotifers Brachionus plicatilis started from the 7th dph until the 14th dph, the beginning of cofeeding on 6 hours enriched Artemia fransiscana (GSL) nauplii started and rotifers reduction started in the 18th dph and stopped from the 20th dph and artemia napulii fed alone until the 25th dph, 25dph larvae started feeding on artemia metanauplii and cofeeding with Orange® P 1/2 Small microdiets with 100-200 micron to 35dph. From the 35th dph artemia metanapulii stopped and larvae fed only on O.range® until the end of the experiment (the 40th dph). The treatments were green water using Nanochlorapsis salina algae (G), greenwater plus marine Bacillus subtilis HS1 Probiotic bacteria (G+MP) and greenwater plus synbiotic (G+S) in 30 l tanks in duplicates. Microbiological measurements were performed in water samples in every larvae critical stage (7, 14, 21, 25, 35 and 40dph) for colony forming unit (CFU) of total bacterial count, Vibrio, Staphylococus, Aeromonas and Bacillus. Also water quality measurements were performed in the beginning of the experiment in 2 pm and in the same time in the 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 40 dph newly hatched larvae tanks. Finally, the results of the 40dph early weaned larvae showed significantly (p<0.05) higher final total length achieved by (G+MP) followed by (G+S) and the lower significant (p<0.05) recorded by (G) treatment. The bacterial counts of the Aeromonas not detected in all treatments, the other bacterial counts showed promising results of (G+MP) and (G+S) than (G) treatments in both inhibiting potentially pathogenic bacteria counts and also in improving the potentially useful bacterial counts.
Salem Ahmed Md.,
Nour A. M.,
Srour T. M.,
Assem S. S.,
Ibrahim H. A.,
El-Sayed H. S.,
Greenwater, Marine Bacillus subtilis HS1 Probiotic and Synbiotic Enriched Artemia and Rotifers Improved European Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax Larvae Early Weaning Length Growth, Survival, Water and Bacteriology quality, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue: New Horizons in Basic and Applied Zoological Research.
Vol. 3, No. 6-1,
2015, pp. 45-52.
FAO. 2012. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome, FAO. 209 pp.
GAFRD, General Authority for Fish Resources Development. 2011. Fish statistics book. 107p.
Salem, Ahmed Md. 2013. Marine fish reproduction and larvae rearing development using probiotic. Ph. D Thesis in Agricultural Sciences (Fish production), Animal and Fish production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, 173p.
El-Masry, H. 2013. Maryut vally fish farms lost 7 million L. E. Ahram, 10th September, 2013 Journal, 46299. http://www.ahram.org.eg/NewsQ/231125.aspx.
Süzer, C., Okan Kamaci, H., Çoban, D., Saka, Ş., Firat, K.; Karacaoğlan, A. 2011. Early weaning of sea bass (D. labrax) larvae: effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11, 491-497.
Castell, J. D.; Tiews, K. (Eds.) 1980. Report of the EIFAC, IUNS and ICES Working Group on the standardization of methodology in fish nutrition research. Humberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 21-23 March, 1979. EIFAC Tech. Pap., 36, 24 pp.
Garber, M. J., De Yonge, K. G., Byatt, J. C., Lellis, W. A., Honey field, D. C., Bull, R. C., Schelling, G. T.; Roeder, R. A. 1995. Dose response effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (Posilac TM) on growth performance and body composition of two-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Animal Science, 73, 3216-3222.
Nour, A. A., Zaki, M. A., AbdEl-Rahim, M. M.; Mabrouk, H. A. 2004. Factors affecting swim-bladder inflation, survival and growth performance of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata larvae: 2- water salinity. Egyptian J. of Aquatic Research, 30, 418- 428.
Zobell, C. E. 1946. Marine Microbiology. Waltham, MA: Chronica Botanica., 240 pp.
Abo-Elela, G. M.; Farag, A. M. 2004. Bacteriological quality and metal contents of Diplodus vulgarus and Siganus rivulotus in the Eastern Harbour water: a comparative study of freshly harvested and market fish. Egyptian J. Aquatic Res., 30(A), 216-225.
Kobayashi, T., Enomato, S., Sakazaki, R.; Kuwahara, S. 1963. A new selective medium for pathogenic Vibrios. TCBS agar (modified Nakanishi's agar). Japanese. J. Bacteriol., 18, 387-391.
Stat Soft, Inc. 1995. STATISTICA for windows [Computer program manual]. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft, Inc., 2300 East 14th Street, website: http://www.statsoft.com.
Ariğ, N., Süzer, C., Gökvardar, A., Başaran, F., Çoban, D., Yildirim, Ş., Kamaci, O., Firat, K.; Saka, Ş. 2013. Effects of probiotic (Bacillus sp.) supplementation during larval development of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 13, 407-414.
Qi, Z. 2008. The dynamics of microbial communities and probiotic supplements in the marine larviculture feed chain. PhD thesis, Ghent University, Belgium. 274P.
Süzer, C., Çoban, D., Kamaci, H. O., Saka, S., Firat, K., Otgucuoglu, Ö.; Küçüksari, H. 2008. Lactobacillus spp. bacteria as probiotics in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) larvae: effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Aquaculture, 280, 140–145.
Ziaei-Nejad, S., Rezaei, M. H., Takami, G. A., Lovett, D. L., Mirvaghefi, A. R.; Shakouri, M. 2006. The effect of Bacillus spp. bacteria used as probiotics on digestive enzyme activity, survival and growth in the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus. Aquaculture, 252, 516-524.
Wang, Y. 2007. Effect of probiotics on growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 269, 259-264.
Tovar-Ramírez, D., Zambonino, I. J., Cahu, C., Gatesoupe, F. J., Vázquez-Juárez, R., 2004. Influence of dietary live yeast on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larval development. Aquaculture, 234, 415-27.
Figueiredo, J., Lin, J., Anto, J.; Narciso, L. 2012. The Consumption of DHA during Embryogenesis as an Indicative of the Need to Supply DHA during Early Larval Development: A Review. J. Aquaculture Res. Dev., 3, 140.
Almli, M. 2012. Effects of different live feed on larval growth and development in ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta Ascanius, 1767): A metabolomics study. M. Sc. Thesies, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
Conceição, L., Yúfera, M., Makridis, P., Morais, S.; Dinis, M. T. 2009. Live feeds for early stages of fish rearing. Aquaculture Research, 1-28.
Cerezuela, R., Meseguer, J.; Esteban, M. 2011. Current knowledge in synbiotic use for fish aquaculture: A review. J. Aquac. Res. Development, 1- 7.
Rodriguez-Estrada, U., Satoh, S., Haga, Y., Fushimi, H.; Sweetman, J. 2009. Effects of single and combined supplementation of Enterococcus faecalis, mannan oligosaccharide and polyhydrobutyric acid on growth performance and immune response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquacult. Sci., 57, 609–617.
Ye, J. D., Wang, K., Li, F. D.; Sun, Y. Z. 2011. Single or combined effects of fructo- and mannan oligosaccharide supplements and Bacillus clausii on the growth, feed utilization, body composition, digestive enzyme activity, innate immune response and lipid metabolism of the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquac. Nutr., 17, 902-911.
Mehrabi, Z., Firouzbakhsh, F.; Jafarpour, A. 2012. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotic on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and carcass composition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 96 (3), 474-481.
Ai, Q., Xu, H., Mai, K., Xu, W.; Wang, J. 2011. Effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance, survival, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Aquaculture, 317, 155-161.
Geng, X., Dong, X. H., Tan, B. P., Yang, Q. H.; Chi, S. Y. 2011. Effects of dietary chitosan and Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 31, 400-406.
Zaki, M. A., Nour, A. A., AbdEl-Rahim, M. M.; Mabrouk, H. A. 2004. Factors affecting swim-bladder inflation, survival and growth performance of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata larvae: (1) rotifers Brachionus plicatilis consumption. Egyptian J. of Aquatic Research, 30, 406- 417.
Wang, Y. B., Xu, Z. R.; Xia, M. S. 2005. The effectiveness of commercial probiotics in Northern White Shrimp (Penaeus vanname iL.) ponds. Fish. Sci., 71, 1034–1039.
Zhou, Z., He, S., Liu, Y., Shi, P., Huang, G.; Yao, B. 2009. The effects of dietary yeast culture or short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on the intestinal autochthonous bacterial communities in juvenile hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus♀×Oreochromis aureus♂. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 40, 450–459.
Lalloo, R., Ramchuran, S., Ramduth, D., Gorgens, J.; Gardiner, N. 2007. Isolation and selection of Bacillus spp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish. J. Appl. Microbiol., 103, 1471-1479.
Ibrahim, H. A. 2007. Bacterial Community Structure in Suez Gulf: Distribution, molecular analysis and some applied aspects. PhD Thesies, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University.
Verschuere, L., Rombaut, G., Sorgeloos, P.; Verstraete, W. 2000. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiol Mol. Biol. Rev., 64, 655-671.
El-Haroun, E. R., Goda, A. S., Kabir, A. M.; Chowdhurry, M. A. 2006. Effect of dietary probiotic Biogen® supplementation as a growth promoter on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquacult. Res., 37, 1473–1480.
Gatesoupe, F. J. 2007. Live yeasts in the gut: natural occurrence, dietary introduction, and their effects on fish health and development. Aquaculture, 267, 20-30.
Planas, M., Pérez-Lorenzo, M., Hjelm, M., Gram, L., Fiksdal, I. U.; Bergh, Ø. 2006. Probiotic effect in vivo of Roseobacter strain 27-4 against Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum infections in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae. Aquaculture, 255, 323-333.
Eddy, S. D.; Jones, S. H. 2002. Microbiology of summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus fingerling production at a marine fish hatchery. Aquaculture, 211, 9-28.
Li, P.; Gatlin, D.M. III. 2005. Evaluation of the prebiotic GroBiotic®-A and brewer’s yeast as dietary supplements for sub-adult hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops ×M. saxatilis) challenged in situ with Mycobacterium marinum. Aquaculture, 248, 197–205.
Tryfiates, G. P. 1986. Pyridocal phosphate and metabolism. In: Dolphin, D. Poulson, R.; Avramovil, O. (Eds.), Vitamin B6, Pyridoxal Phosphate. Part B, 422-447. John Willy & Sons, Inc. USA.
Truong, T. M. H. 2012. Effect of water treatment systems on gut microbial community in reared larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). M. Sc. Thesies, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.