American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2015, Pages: 30-37
Received: Aug. 27, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 13, 2015;
Published: Nov. 29, 2015
Views 5031 Downloads 147
Mohamed Arafa Adly, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
Mohamed Abdelaziz Ahmed Abd El-Galil, Fish Diseases and Management Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
Fayza M. Soliman, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
Fatma El Zahraa A. A. Ahmed, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
The present study was planned to study the trichodinosis in the farmed freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus and investigate the histopathological alterations on the skin and gills. The diseased fish had signs of irritation in the form of erratic swimming, swimming near borders, scratching against hard objects, detached scales, excessive and turbid mucus and ulcerations; and signs of asphyxia in the form of rapid operculum movement, surfacing and piping or gasping. Histopathological examination using light microscopy on the skin of O. niloticus with moderate trichodinosis infection revealed detachment of the epidermis and disarrangement of the collagen bundles in dermis. Heavy infections caused sloughing of the epidermis and the remaining dermis had disarranged collagen bundles and was infiltrated with melanin- carrying cells, forming a thick dark band. Scanning electron micrographs of infected skin surface showed cracked and irregular thickness of squamous epithelium at the whole surface with erosions and marked ulcerations. Histopathological examination using light microscopy on gills of O. niloticus with moderate trichodinosis infection revealed erosions in the epithelial lining cells of the secondary lamellae, causing thinning of their peripheral portions. Heavy infections caused hyperplasia and an intense lamellar epithelial lifting. Scanning electron micrographs of gill arches showed the gill filaments with irregular thickness at their whole lengths. Moreover, filamentary and lamellar surfaces were cracked, spotted and had small notches due to the crawling movement of the Trichodina parasites.
Mohamed Arafa Adly,
Mohamed Abdelaziz Ahmed Abd El-Galil,
Fayza M. Soliman,
Fatma El Zahraa A. A. Ahmed,
Histopathological Studies on Trichodinosis of Farmed Oreochromis niloticus, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue:New Horizons in Basic and Applied Zoological Research.
Vol. 3, No. 6-1,
2015, pp. 30-37.
El-Seify, M. A.; Zaki, Mona S.; Abdel Razek, Y. D.;Hossam, H. A.; Osman, K. A. and Attia, A. A. (2011b): Study on Clinopathological and Biochemical Changes in Some Freshwater Fishes infected With External Parasites and Subjected to Heavy Metals Pollution in Egypt. J. Lif. Sci., 8 (3): 401-405.
Hassan, M. A. H. (1999): Trichodiniasis in Farmed Freshwater Tilapia in Eastern Saudi Arabia. J. KAU: Mar Sci., 10: 157-168.
El-Seify, M. A.; Zaki, Mona S.; Abdel Razek, Y. D.; Hossam, H. A.; Osman, K. A. and Attia, A. A. (2011a): Seasonal Variations and Prevalence of Some External Parasites Affecting Freshwater Fishes Reared at Upper Egypt. J. Lif. Sci., 8 (3): 397-400.
Hussain, S.; Hassan, M. Z.; Mukhtar, Y. and Saddiqui, B. N. (2003): Impact of environmental pollution in human behaviour and up-left of awareness level through mass media among the people of Faisalabad city. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 5: 660-661.
Eissa, I. A. M (2002): Parasitic fish diseases in Egypt, 1st. edition, pp: 52-53. Dar El-Nahdda El- Arabia publishing.
Abowei, J. F. N.; Briyai, O. F. and Bassey, S. E. (2011): A Review of Some Basic Parasite Diseases in Culture Fisheries Flagellids, Dinoflagellids and Ichthyophthriasis, Ichthyobodiasis, Coccidiosis, Trichodiniasis, Heminthiasis, Hirudinea Infestation, Crustacean Parsite and Ciliates. Brit. J. of Pharmacol. & Toxicol., 2 (5): 213-226.
Jia-yun, Y.; Xi-lian, L.; Jin-yu, S.; Xiao-yi, P.; Gui-jie, H.; Yang Xu; Wen-lin, Y.; Hongshun, R.; Xiao-lin, L. (2011): Isolation of bioactive components from Chelidonium majus L. with activity against Trichodina sp.. J. Aquacul., 318: 235–238.
Robert, M. D. (2003): protozoan parasites. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) publication no. 4701.
Robert, B. M. Jr. (2013): External Protozoan Diseases of Fish. http://www. cichlidforum. com/articles/diseases_ext_protozoan. php.
Yemmen, C.; Quilichini, Y.; HédiKtari, M.; Marchand, B. and Bahri1, S. (2010/11): Morphological, ecological and histopathological studies of Trichodina gobii Raabe, 1959 (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) infecting the gills of Soleaaegyptiaca. J. Protistol., 6 (4): 258–263.
Soliman Fayza, M.; Abd El-Galil, M. A. A.; Adly, M. A. and Ahmed Fatma El Zahraa, A. A. (2013): Studies on Trichodinosis of Some Cultured Freshwater Fishes at Sohag Governorate. J. life Sci., 10 (4): 1400-1409.
Grammer, G. L.; Slack, W. T.; Peterson, M. S.; and Dugo, M. A. (2012): Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) establishment in temperate Mississippi, USA: multi-year survival confirmed by otolith ages. J. compil. Aquat. Invas., 7 (3): 367–376.
El-Tantawy, S. A. M and El-Sherbiny, H. A. E. (2010): Ectoparasitic trichodinians infecting catfish Clarias gariepinus inhabiting Nile Delta Water of the River Nile, Dakahlia Province, Egypt. J. of Amer. Sci., 6 (9): 656-668.
Abd El-Galil, M. A. A. and Aboelhadid, S. M. (2012): Trials for control of trichodinosis and Gyrodactylosis in hatchery reared Oreochromis niloticus fries by using Garlic. Vet. Parasitol., 185: 57– 63.
Hawkes, J. W. (1974): The Structure of Fish Skin, I. General Organization. Cell Tiss. Res., 149: 147- 158.
Whitear, M. (1971): Cell specialization and sensory function in fish epidermis. J. Zool. (Lond.), 163: 237-264.
Fishelson, L. (1972): Histology and ultrastructure of the skin of Lepadichthys lineatus (Gobiesocidae: Teleostei). Marine Biol., 17: 357-364.
Fujii, R. (1969): Chromatophore and pigments. In: Fish physiology (eds. W. S. Hoar, D. J. Randall), vol. III, p. 307-353. New York: Academic Press.
Figueiredo-Fernandes, A.; Ferreira-Cardoso, J. V.; Garcia-Santos, Sofia; Monteiro, Sandra, M.; Carrola, J.; Matos, P and Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A. (2007): Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper1 Pesq. Vet. Bras., 27 (3):103-109.
Abdel-Meguid, M. (2001): Trichodiniasis as a cause of mortality among infected Tilapia zilli with special emphasis on its control using Earthtec. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. & Fisk., 5 (2): 95-104.
Abo-Esa, J. F. K. (2008): Study on Some Ectoparasitic Diseases of Catfish, Clarias gariepinus with their Control by Ginger, Zingiber officiale. Medit. Aquacul. J., 1 (1): 1-9.
Noga, E. J. (2000): Fish Diseases. Diagnosis and Treatment. Text book, Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-2558-X.
Bartholomew, J. L. (2003): Salmonid ceratomyxosis. In: Suggested Procedures for the Detection and Identification of Certain Finfish and Shellfish Pathogens. Blue Book 5th Ed., Volume 2, Fish Health Section, American Fisheries Society.
Hibiya, T. (1982): An Atlas of Fish Histology. No. 1, 1-5, Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
Hassanain, M. A.; Abbas, W. T. and Ibrahim, T. B. (2012): Skeletal ossification impairment in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after exposure to lead acetate. Pakistan J. of Biol. Scis., 15 (15): 729-735.
Abd El-Galil, M. A. A. (1998): Studies on some fish pathogens affecting freshwater fishes in Beni-Suef hatchery. Thesis of M. V. Sc. Fish Diseases and management. Fish Dept., Fac. Vet. Med., Beni-suef, Cairo univ.
Reed, P.; Ruth F. F. and Ruth, E. K. (2003): Monogenean Parasites of Fish. This document is FA-28, one of a series from the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Huh, M. D.; Thomas, C. D.; Udomkusnsri, P. and Noga, E. J. (2005): Epidemic trichodinosis associated with sever epidermal hyperplasia in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides from North Carolina, USA. J. of Wildlife Dis., 41 (3): 647-653.
Gostin, I. N.; Neagu, A. N. and Vulpe, V. (2011): SEM investigations regarding skin micromorphology and modification induced by bacterial infections in Cyprinus carpio and Salmo trutta fario. Inter. J. of Ener. and Environ., 2 (5): 274-281.