The inhibitory effect of the fungicides Acrobat copper, Previcure-N and Unilax, the inducer resistance chemicals (IRCs) bion, chitosan, salicylic acid and zinc sulphate and the bioagents Bacillus polymyxa, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on sporangial germination of fungus like Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the causal of cantaloupe downy mildew was tested in vitro. The role of the tested fungicides, IRCs and bioagents on management of cantaloupe downy mildew was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. In addition, the alternation between the sprayed tested fungicide Unilax, IRC chitosan and bioagent P.fluorescens on management of the disease under field conditions was investigated. The inhibitory effect of the tested fungicides, IRCs and bioagents on sporangial germination of P. cubensis revealed that they caused significant reduction to the germinated sporangia. The tested fungicides were the most efficient ones followed by the bioagents then IRCs. Disease management showed the same trend of in vitro experiment when they sprayed on artificially inoculated cantaloupe plants with the sporangia of the causal fungus like under greenhouse conditions. Under field conditions, spraying cantaloupe plants with the tested fungicide Unilax still the most efficient trial for management the disease during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons compared with spraying any of IRC (chitosan) and the bioagent (P. fluorescens) alone . However, spraying the tested fungicide in alternation with the tested IRC and the bioagent ranked the second efficiency of disease management. Meanwhile, spraying the tested fungicide in alternation with any of the tested IRC and bioagent was of moderate efficiency.
Abada, K. A.,
Kh. E. Eid,
A Protocol Suggested for Management of Cantaloupe Downy Mildew, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue:Role of Combination Between Bioagents and Solarization on Management of Crown-and Stem-Rot of Egyptian Clover.
Vol. 2, No. 6-2,
2014, pp. 1-10.
Abada, K.A and A.M. Abdel-Malek,Gehan, 2011. The role of some systemic fungicides and resistance inducing
chemicals on controlling pea downy mildew. Zagazig J. Agric. Res., 38(2): 319-337.
Abada, K.A., R. Mervat Hilal and S.H. Mostafa, 2008. Induced resistance against powdery mildew in
cucumber. J. Biol. Chem. Environ. Sci., 3(3): 45-56.
Abdel-Kader, M.M., Nehal S. El-Mougy, M.D.E. Aly and S.M. Lashin, 2012. Integration of biological and fungicidal aqlternatives for controlling foliar diseases of vegetables under greenhouse conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2(2): 38-48.
Abo-El Ghar, A.I., 1970. Studies on some viruses affecting cucurbits in Egypt. M.Sc. Thesis, Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ., pp: 109.
Abo-Taleb, Mona, M.A., 2001. Biochemical changes associated with application of some resistance inducing
compounds for controlling powdery mildew of cucumber. Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., 16(14): 387-404.
Aegerter, B.J., T.R. Gordon and R.M. Davis, 2000. Occurrence and Pathogenicity of fungi associated with
melon root-rot and vine decline in cantaloupe. Plant Dis., 84: 224-230.
Ashour, A.M.A., 2009. Effect of application of some fungicides and resistance inducing chemicals on
management of cantaloupe powdery mildew. Egypt. J. Phytopathol., 37(1): 1-8.
Atia, M.M.M., H. Buchenauer, A.Z. Aly, M.I. Abou-Ziad, 2005. Antifungal activity of chitosan against Phytophthora infestans and activation of defence mechanisms in tomato to late blight. Biological agriculture & horticulture, 23: 175-197.
Brutan, B.D., 1997. Occurrence of vine decline disease of melons in Honduras. Plant Dis., 81: 696-705.
Colucci, S., 2008. Host Range, fungicide resistance and management of Pseudoperonospora cubensis, causal
agent of cucurbit downy mildew. M.Sc. Thesis, North Carolina State Univ.
Dean, R.A. and J. Kuc, 1985. Induced systemic protection in plants . TrendsBiotechnol., 3: 125-128.
Doubrava, N., R. Dean and J. Kuc, 1988. Induction of systemic resistance to anthracnose caused by
Colltetrichum lagenarum from spinach and hubar leaves. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol., 33: 60-70.
El- Khallal, Samia M., 2007. Induction and modulation of resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium wilt disease by bioagent fungi (arbuscular mycorrhiza) and/or hormonal elicitors (jasmonic acid & salicylic acid):2-Changes in the antioxidant enzymes, phenolic compounds and pathogen related- proteins. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(4): 717-732.
Fisher, R.A., 1948. Statistical Methods 6th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Gisi, U., 2002. Chemical Control of Downy Mildews. In: Advances in Downy Mildew Research. P.T.N.
Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi and A. Lebeda (eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht., pp: 119-159. Hilal, Mervat R., 2004. Induced acquired resistance to cantaloupe powdery mildew by some chemicals under
greenhouse conditions. Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., 19(1): 82-90.
Horsfall, J.G. and R.W. Barratt, 1945. An improved grading system for measuring plant diseases. Phytopathology, 35: 655.
Iriti, M. and F. Faoro, 2003. Benzothiadiazole (BTH): Induces cell-death independent resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris against Uromyces appendiculatus. J. of Phytopathol, 151(3): 171-180.
Kessmann, H., T. Sataub, C. Hofmann, T. Meatzke and J. Herzog, 1994. Induction of systemic acquired disease resistance in plants by chemicals. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 32: 439-459.
Larcke, P., 1981. Alternative chemical agents for controlling plant diseases. Phil. Trans. Res. Soc., 2: 83- 101.
Mc Grath, Margret, T., 2001. Fungicide resistance in cucurbit powdery mildew. PlantDis., 85(3): 236- 250.
Meena, B., T. Marimuthu and R. Velazhahan, 2006. Role of fluoroscent pseudomonas in plant growth promotion and biological control of late leaf spot of groundnut. Acta Phythopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 41(3-4): 203-212.
Megdam, K.A., 2013. Pathological studies on cantaloupe fruit-rot caused by Fusarium spp. M.Sc. Thesis , Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ.
Metranx, J.D. and T. Boller, 1986. Local and systemic induction of chitinase in cucumber plants in response to fungal, bacterial and viral infections. Physiol. Mol. Pathol., 28: 161-169.
Muhanna, Naglaa A.S., 2006. Pathological studies on root-rot and vine decline of cantaloupe in Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., pp: 218.
Omar, M.N.A., F. Badr, Salwa, E. Hasan, Maggi and M. Hewait, Heba, 2011. Evaluation of some plant growth- promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in inducing resistance of wheat leaf rust under saline conditions. Egypt. J. Phytopathol., 39(1): 111-130.
Osman, Hamida, A., 1966. Studies on the pathogenesis of root knot nematodes Meloidogyne species. M. Sc. Thesis, Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ., p: 41.
Rabea, E.I., M.E.I. Badawy, C.V. Stevens, G. Smagghe, W. Steurbaut, 2003. Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action. Bio macro molecules, 4: 1457-1465.
Ramamoorthy, V., R. Viswanathan, T. Raguchander, V. Pkakasam and R. Samivappan, 2001. Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in crop plants against pests and diseases in: Crop Protect., 20(1): 1-11.
Sarnigute, A.J., M.D. Kraus, Lenkels, A.M. Muchlchen and J.E. Loper, 1995. The sigma factor affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens PF-5. Proc. Watl. Acad. Sci., USA , 92: 12255-12259.
Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran, 1967. Statistical Methods. 6th Ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Trankner, A., 1992. Use of agricultural and municipal organic wastes to develop suppressiveness to plant pathogens. In: E.C. Tjamos, G.C. Papavizas and R.J.Cook, Biological Control of Plant Diseases. Plenum Press, New York, pp: 35-42.
Zheng, L. and J. Zhu, 2003. Study on antimicrobial activity of chitosan with different molecular weights. Carbohydrate Polymer, 54: 527-30.
Zitter, T.A., D.L. Hopkins and C.E. Thomas, 1996. Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp: 87.