Archive
Special Issues
Microbial Protein Production from Agro-industrial Wastes as Food and Feed
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages: 121-126
Received: Mar. 4, 2020; Accepted: Mar. 31, 2020; Published: Sep. 3, 2020
Views 96      Downloads 76
Author
Tirsit Tibebu Bogale, Microbial Biotechnology Research Program, National Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Holeta, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Microbial protein refers to dead, dry microbial cells or total proteins extracted from pure microbial cell culture and is produced using a number of different microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and algae, which are used as protein supplement in human foods or animal feeds. It can also be called single cell protein, bio protein or biomass. Microorganisms, utilize inexpensive feedstock and wastes as sources of carbon and energy for growth to produce biomass, protein concentrate or amino acids. Besides high protein content (about 60-82% of dry cell weight), microbial protein also contains fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, vitamins and minerals like potassium, phosphorus. Another advantage with microbial protein is that it is rich in certain essential amino acids like lysine, methionine which are limiting in most plant and animal. With increase in population and worldwide protein shortage the use of microbial biomass as food and feed is more highlighted. One of the most prominent applications of microbial protein (single cell protein) is that it can be used as dietary supplements to address important issues like malnutrition especially in the developing countries.
Keywords
Microbial Biomass, Microbial Protein, Microorganisms
To cite this article
Tirsit Tibebu Bogale, Microbial Protein Production from Agro-industrial Wastes as Food and Feed, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2020, pp. 121-126. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20200805.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Adedayo MR, Ajiboye EA, Akintunde JK, Odaibo A (2011) Single cell proteins: as nutritional enhancer. Adv Appl Sci Res 2: 396-409.
[2]
Andersen BR, Jorgensen JB, Jorgensen SB (2005) U-loop reactor modelling for optimization. Part 1: estimation of heat loss. J Environ Issues 9: 88-90.
[3]
Arora DK, Mukerji KG, Marth EH (1991) Single cell protein from molds and higher fungi. In: Hand book of applied mycology: foods and feeds, vol. 3, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, pp. 499-539.
[4]
Asenjo, J. A. and P. Dunnill (1981). The isolation of lytic enzymes from Cytophaga sp. and their application to the rupture of yeast cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 23: 1045-1056.
[5]
Baldwin, C. V. and C. W. Robinson (1994). Enhanced disruption of Candida utilis using enzimatic pretreatment and high pressure homogenization. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 43: 46-56.
[6]
Bamberg JH. (2000). British petroleum and global oil 1950-1975: the challenge of nationalism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 6: 445-478.
[7]
Bekatorou A., Psarianos C., Koutinas A. A. (2006). Production of food grade yeasts. Biopolymers 44, 407–415.
[8]
Benaiges, M. D., J. Lopez-Santin and C. Sola (1989). Partial purification of 5-phosphodiesterase activity from barley rootlets. Enzyme Microbiol. Technol., 11: 444-451.
[9]
Bhalla TC, Sharma NN, Sharma M, Gunasekaran P (2007). Production of metabolites, industrial enzymes, amino acids, organic acids, antibiotics, vitamins and single cell proteins. National Science Digital Library, India.
[10]
Capalbo DM, Valicente FH, Moraes IO, Pelizer LH (2001). Solid-state fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi to control fall armyworm in maize. Electron J Biotechnol 4: 1-4.
[11]
Damodaran, S. and J. E. Kinsella (1983). The use of chaotropic salts for separation of ribonucleic acids and proteins from yeast nucleo-proteins. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 25: 761-770.
[12]
Engler, C. R. (1985). Disruption of Microbial Cells. In: Comprehensive Biotechnology, Moo-Young, M. and C. L. Cooney (Eds.). Pegamon Press, Oxford, UK., pp: 305-324.
[13]
Hamdy, H. S. (2013). Production of mini-food by Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using orange peels. Romanian Biotechnological Letters. 18 (1): 7929-7946.
[14]
Hedenskog, G and H Morgen, (1973) Some methods for processing of single cell protein Biotechnol Bioeng., 15: 129-142.
[15]
Huang, Y. T and J. E Kinsella, 1986 Functional properties of phosphorylated yeast protein: Solubility, water-holding capacity and viscosity J Agric Food Chem., 344: 670-674.
[16]
Kargi F, Shuler ML, Vashon R, Seeley Jr HW, Henry A, et al (1980) Continuous aerobic conversion of poultry waste into single-cell protein using a single reactor: kinetic analysis and determination of optimal conditions Biotechnol Bioeng 22: 1567-1600.
[17]
Kunhi, A. A. M and M. R. R Rao (1995) The utility of a fungal ribonuclease for reducing the nucleic acid content of permeabilized yeast cells Food Biotechnol., 9: 13-28.
[18]
Lee, B. H (1996) Fundamentals of Food Biotechnolory Wiley-VCH, New York.
[19]
Middelberg, A. P. J., 1995 Process-scale disruption of microorganisms Biotechnol Adv., 13: 491-551.
[20]
Mondal AK, Sengupta S, Bhowal J, Bhattacharya DK (2012) Utilization of fruit wastes in producing single cell protein Int J Sci Environ Technol 1: 430-438.
[21]
Nasseri, A. T., S Rasoul-Amini, M. H Morowvat and Y Ghassemi (2011) Single Cell Protein: Production and Process American Journal of Food Technology 6 (2): 103-116.
[22]
Oscar AP, Jorgensen JB, Jorgensen SB (2010) Systematic model analysis for single cell protein (SCP) production in a U-loop reactor 20th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering - ESCAPE 20.
[23]
Parajo, J. C., V Santos, H Dominguez and M Vazquez (1995) NH4OH-based pretreatment for improving the nutritional quality of single cell protein Applied Biochem Biotechnol., 55: 133-149.
[24]
Scrimshaw, N. S and J. C Dillen (1977) Single Cell Protein as Food and Feed In: Single Cell Protein-safety for Animal and Human Feeding, Garattini, S., S Paglialunga and N. S Scrimshaw (Eds.) Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK., pp: 171-173.
[25]
Singh, J. K, R. L Meshram and D. S Ramteke (2011) Production of Single cell protein and removal of ‘C OD’ from dairy waste water European Journal of Experimental Biology, 1 (3): 209-215.
[26]
Singhania RR, Patel AK, Soccol CR, Pandey A (2009) Recent advances in solid-state fermentation Biochem Eng J 44: 13-18.
[27]
Soland L (2005) Characterization of liquid mixing and dispersion in a U-loop fermentor Am Eur J Agric Environ Sci 67: 99-109.
[28]
Srividya, A. R., V. J Vishnuvarthan, M Murugappan and P. K Dahake (2013) Single Cell Protein: Review International Journal of Pharmaceuticals Scholars 2 (4): 14p.
[29]
Srividya AR, Vishnuvarthan VJ, Murugappan M, Dahake PG (2014) Single cell protein- a review Int J Pharm Res Scholars 2: 472-485.
[30]
Steinkraus, K. H (1986) Microbial Biomass Protein Grown on Edible Substrates: The Indigenous Fermented Foods In: Microbial Biomass Protein, Moo-Young, M and K. F Gregory (Eds.) Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp: 35-45.
[31]
Suman G, Nupur M, Anuradha S, Pradeep B (2015) Single cell protein production: a review Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 4: 251-262.
[32]
Talebnia F (2008) Ethanol production from cellulosic biomass by encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae PhD Thesis, Chalmers University of technology, Gotheburg, Sweden 334: 113-145.
[33]
Ugalde, U. O & Castrillo, JI (2002) Applied mycology and biotechnology Agriculture and food production 2, 123 149.
[34]
Valentino, M. J. G., Ganado, L. S & Undan, J. R (2016) Single cell protein potential of endophytic fungi associated with bamboo using rice bran as substrate Adv in Appl Sci Res 7 (3), 68 72 Valmaseda.
[35]
Varavinit S, Srithongkum P, De-Eknamkul C, Assavanig A, Charoensiri K (1996) Production of single cell protein from cassava starch in air-lift fermenter by Cephalosporium eichhorniae Starke 48: 379-382.
[36]
Ware SA (1977) Single cell protein and other food recovery technologies from wastes Municipal environmental research laboratory office of research and development, U.S environmental protection agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, USA.
[37]
Weitzel W, Winchel M (1932) The yeast its nutritive and therapeutic value Verlag Rothgiese und Diesing, Berlin, Germany.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186