Please enter verification code
Special Issues
Potential of Silver Nano Particles Synthesized from Ficus sycomorus Linn Against Multidrug Resistant Shigella species Isolated from Clinical Specimens
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 4, August 2020, Pages: 82-90
Received: Mar. 3, 2020; Accepted: Mar. 24, 2020; Published: Aug. 25, 2020
Views 243      Downloads 69
Yunusa Saheed, Desert Research Monitoring and Control Centre, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria
Ahmed Faruk Umar, Microbiology Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Mahmud Yerima Iliyasu, Microbiology Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Ficus sycomorus Plant was known traditionally for its medicinal properties, Shigella species as a bacterial was also known for their resistance to orthodox medicine. Hence the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Ficus sycomorus. This study was carried out to investigate the anti-shigellosis potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Ficus sycomorus Linn stem bark aqueous extract against Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) Shigella species isolated from clinical specimen collected from patients attending Yobe State Specialist Hospital Damaturu, Nigeria. A total of 400 diarrhoeagenic stools were screened for isolation of Shigella species and determined their antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard methods. Phytochemical constituents of Ficus sycomorus extract were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles using green synthesis approach. The nanoparticles was analyzed for transmittance, functional groups, sizes and shapes using Uv-vis, FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and was tested for antibacterial activities on MDR Shigella isolates. There is no significant difference in Shigella recovery relation to patients gender (P<0.05). The age group, 0 - 10 years were more susceptible, 40% (36), followed by >30 years (21). Shigella were also found to be sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (92%), Augmentin (87%), Cefuroxime (85%), Streptomycin (83.5%) while the most frequent resistance was showcased against Nalidixic Acid (48%), and Tetracycline (27%). Phytochemicals detected include saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside and tannin. Uv-vis showed broad peaks around 460nm, the FTIR showed C-H stretch of hydroxyl group of alkanes and the SEM showed nanoparticles with wide range of shapes and sizes. Anti-Shigella activities of silver nanoparticles is higher at zones of inhibition between 10mm and 30mm higher compared to the activities of crude aqueous extract and AgNO3 solution against the MDR Shigella species which showed an enhanced activities. The high prevalence of shigellosis among children in this study, indicated that improved hygiene is needed for children in the area and detailed examination is required for the treatment of diarrhoea in adults. Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin Clavulanate, Nalidixic acid could be used only where culture and sensitivity results prevailed. Enhanced traditional medicine should be given priority because of its potentials. This study have demonstrated feasibility of the green synthesis of F. sycomorus as a potent anti-shigellosis to combat the global burden of the disease. This is the first study On Stem bark aqueous extracts of F. sycomorus against Shigella species in the area.
Nanoparticles, Shigellosis, Diarrhoeagenic, Damaturu, Ficus sycomorus, MDR
To cite this article
Yunusa Saheed, Ahmed Faruk Umar, Mahmud Yerima Iliyasu, Potential of Silver Nano Particles Synthesized from Ficus sycomorus Linn Against Multidrug Resistant Shigella species Isolated from Clinical Specimens, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 82-90. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20200804.16
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Qu F., Bao C., Chen S., Cui E., Guo T., and Wang H. (2012) Genotypes and antimicrobial profiles of Shigella sonnei isolates fromdiarrheal patients circulating in Beijing between 2002 and 2007. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 74 (2): 166–170.
Aragon, T. J, Vugia D. J, Shallow S., Samuel M. C, Reingold, and A. (2007). Case-Control Study of Shigellosis in San Francisco: The Role of Sexual Transmission and HIV Infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 44: 327–34.
Ryan, K. J and Ray C. G (2004). Ed. Sherris Medical Microbiology: An introduction to infectious disease. McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division New York. 4th Edition. P357-362.
Kumar Surinda (2014). Essentials of Medical Microbiology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. New Delhi. 648p.
Tam, F. C., Wang, M., and Dong, B., (2008). New rapid test for shigella fever: usefulness, cross-detection, and solution. Diagnostics Microbiology of Infectious Diseases. 62 (2): 142-150.
Byarugaba, D. K. (2004). A view on antmicrobial resistance in developing countries and responsible risk factors. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 24: 105–110.
Doore, S. M., Parent, K. N., Schrad, J. R., Dean, W. F., and Dover, J. A. (2018). Shigella phages isolated during a dysentery outbreak reveal uncommon structures and broad species diversity. Journal of
Saleh, B., Hammoud, R. and Al-Mariri, A. (2015). Antimicrobial activity of Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae) leaf and stem-bark extracts against multidrug resistant human pathogens. Herbal polonica. 61: 39-49. DOI: 10.1515/hepo-2015-0009.
Calixto, J. B., Otuki, M. F., and Santos, A. R. (2003). Planta Medica. 69: 973–983, pMID: 14735432.
Orwa, C. A., Mutua, Kindt R., Jamnadass R. and Anthony, S. (2009). Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 (
Abubakar, U. S. (2017). Anticonvulsant activity of the methanol root bark extract of Ficus sycomorus linn. (Moraceae). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy Research. 5 (1), 69 77. ISSN 0719-4250.
Khatoon N., Mazumder J. A, and Sardar, M. (2017) Biotechnological Applications of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles. Journal of Nanoscience Current Research 2: 107. doi: 10.4172/2572-0813.1000107.
Zhang X., Liu Z., Shen W and Gurunathan S (2016). Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches. International Journal of Molecular Science. 17 (1534): 1-34; doi: 10.3390/ijms17091534.
Salem, W. M., Haridy, M., Sayed, W. F., and Hassan N. H. (2014). Antibacterial Activity of Silver nanoparticles Synthesized from Latex and Leaf of Ficus sycomorus. Industrial Crops and Products. Elsevier. 62: 228-234.
Sharman, V. K., Yngard, R. A. and Lin, Y. (2009). Adv. Colloid SurfaceInterface. 145: 83. Shigella sonnei outbreak among men who have sex with men San Francisco, California, 2000–2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001; 50: 922–6.
Lateef, A. (2016). Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a pod extract of Cola nitida: Antibacterial and antioxidant activities and application as a paint additive. Journal of Taibah University for Science.
Shitu, K. O. (2017). Application of gold nanoparticles for improved drug efficiency. Advanced Natural Science: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 8 035014.
Abraham, J., Logeswari, P, and Silambarasan, S. (2016). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants extract and analysis of their antimicrobial property. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 3: 311-317.
Sondi, I. and Salopek-Sondi, B. (2004) Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Colloid Interface Science 275: 177-182.
Sivapalasingam S, Nelson, J. M, Joyce, K, Hoekstra, M, Angulo, F. J, and Mintz E. D. (2006). High prevalence of antimicrobrial resistance among Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotheraphy 2006; 50: 49-54.
Cheesbrough, M (2012). District laboratory practice in tropical countries, Microbiological tests. Chapter 7. In: Cheesbrough M, Ed. pt 2. 2nd Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp: 9-267.
Gaurav, A, Singh, S. P, Gill, J. P., Kumar, R., and Kumar, D., (2013). Isolation and identification of Shigella spp. from human fecal samples collected from Pantnagar, Indian Veterinary World. 6 (7): 376-379, doi: 10.5455/vetworld.
Banerjee P., Satapathy P., Mukhopahayay, M. and Das, P. (2014). Leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from widely available Indian plants: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial property and toxicity analysis. Bio resources and Bioprocessing. 1 (3): 1-9.
CLSI. (2019). Performance Standard for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 29th Edition. CLSI Supplement M100. Wayne P. A. Clinical Laboratory Standard institute.
Amaldhas, T. P., (2012). Adv. Nat. Sci: nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3: 045006.
Umadevi MS, Shalini S and Bondu MR (2012). Synthesis of Silvernanoparticle Using D. carota extract. Advances in Natural Science: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 3 (2): 1-7.
John J, Aravindakumar C. T and and Thomas S. (2018). Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Phyto-Constituents of Ficus auriculata Lour. Leaf Extract: mechanistic Approach. Saudi Arabia Journal of Biotechnology. 4: 103. 77, 257–262.
Onuoha, S. C., Eluu and Okata, M. O. (2016). In-vitro Antimicrobial Resistance of Shigella and Salmonella species Recovered from Abattoir effluent in Afikpo, South Eastern Nigeria. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 5 (4): 488-497. doi:
Saleh B and Al-Mariri A (2017). Phytochemical constitutes of Ficus sycomorus L. and inhibitory effect of their crude extracts against bacterial pathogens. Journal of Natural Products. 10: 06-14.
Zamanlou S., Rezaee M. A., Aghazadeh M., Ghotaslou R., Nave H. H., and Khalili Y. (2018). Genotypic Diversity of Multidrug Resistant Shigella species from Iran. IC journal of Infection and Chemotheraphy. 50 (1): 29-37.
Iwalokun BA, Gbenle GO, Smith SI, Ogunledun A, Akinsinde KA, and Omonigbehin EA. (2001) Epidemiology of Shigellosis in Lagos, Nigeria: Trends in antimicrobial resistance. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition. 19: 183-90.
Stoll BJ, Glass RI, Huq MI, Kuan MV, Bann H. and Holt J. Epidemiologic and clinical features of patients infected with Shigella who attached a diarrhoea disease hospital in Bangladesh. J Infect Dis. 1982; 88.177-83.
Andualem B, Kassu A, Diro E, Moges F, and Gedefaw M. (2006). The prevalence and antimicrobial responses of Shigella Isolates in HIV-1 infected and uninfected adult diarrhea patients in north west Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 20 (2): 99-105.
Ngoshe I. Y., Denue B. A., Bello S. A., Akawu C. B and Gashua W. (2017). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella species isolates from diarrheal stool of patients in a tertiary health facility in northeastern Nigeria. SubSaharan African Journal of Medicine; 4: 96-101.
Mas’ud Abdullahi. (2017). Shigellosis and Socio-Demography of hospitalized Patients in Kano, North-West, Nigeria. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention. 6 (3). PP. 31-37.
Abubakar, U. S, DanMalam, U. H., Ahmed, A., Abdullahi S., Abba A., and Rukayya N. (2016). Gc-Ms Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Ficus Sycomorus Root Linn. (Moraceae). Bayero Journal of Pure Applied Sciences, 9 (2): 30–34.
Ahmad A. S., Dahiru, A., Muhammad, A. T., Idriss, H. and Gautam K. (2016). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Ficus sycomorus Extracts of the Stem Bark and Leaves on Some Pathogenic Microorganisms. American Chemical Science Journal. 13 (3): 1-5.
Oluwasesan M. B., Agbende M. Z. and Jacob G. A. (2013). Comparative studies of phytochemical screening of Ficus sycomorus linn stem bark extract and Piliostigma thonningii roots extract. Asian Journal of Plant Science Research, 3 (6): 69-73.
Daniel D. and Dluya T. (2016). In vitro Biochemical Assessments of Methanol Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus sycomorus Plant. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 9 (1); 63–68.
Garba, S. H, Prasad, J. and Sandabe, U. K. (2007). Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Root-Back Extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn) on Carbon Tetrachloride induced Hepathotoxicity in Rats. Journal of Biological Sciences. 7 (2): 276-281.
Mudi SY, Muhammad A, Musa J and Datti Y (2015). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial activity of leaves and fruits of F. sycomorus. Chemsearch Journal. 6 (1): 1-7.
Kesba HH and El-Beltagi HS (2012). Biochemical changes in grape rootstocks resulted from humic acid treatments in relation to nematode infection. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2 (4): 287-293.
El-Beltagi S. H., Mohammed H. T., Abdelazeem, A. S., Youssef, R., and Safwat, G. (2019). GC-MS Analysis, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities of Extracts from Ficus sycomorus Fruits and Leaves. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 47 (2): 493-505.
Aroca RF, Alvarez-Puebla, Pieczonka N, Sanchez-Cortez S, and Garcia-Ramos JV (2005). Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on colloida nanostructure. Advanced Colloid interface Science. 116: 45-61.
Saad A. M, Abdulameen H. A., Ghareeb, M. A., and Hamed M. H. (2017). In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and green biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Callistemon citrinus leaf extract. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 7 (06); 2017: 141-149.
Lateef, A., Adelere, I. A., and Gueguim-Kana, E. B. (2015). Bacillus safensis LAU. a new source of keratinase and its multi-functional biocatalytic applications. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment. 29: 54–63.
Adelere I. A., Lateef, A, Aboyeji, O. O., Abdusalam, R., Abba M. U., and Bala, D. D. (2017). Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Buchholzia Coriacea (Wonderful Kola) Seeds and their Antimicrobial Activities. Annals. Food Science and Technology. 18 (4): 671-679.
Mahmoud, W, Elazzazy A. M and Danial E. N (2017). In vitro evaluation of antioxidant, biochemical and antimicrobial properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 31: 2, 373-379.
Mmola M., Roes-Hill, M. L., Durell, K., and Bolton, J. J. (2016). Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activity of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Sargassum incisifolium Aqueous Extracts. Molecules (21) 1633. 1–20.
Bhalerao BM and Borkar PA (2017). Plant as a natural source for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 5 (6): 98-104.
Premanand, G., Shanmugam, N., Kannadasan, N., Sathishkumar, K. and Viruthagi, G. (2016). Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial properties against some human pathogens. Applied Nanoscience. 6: 409-415.
Augustine R., Kalarikkal N, and Thomas, S. (2014). A facile and rapid method for the black pepper leaf mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antimicrobial study. Applied Nanoscience, 4: 809–818.
Kotakadi V. S., Gaddam S. A. and Venkata S. K. (2014). New generation of bactericidal silver nanoparticles against different antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli strains. Journal of Applications of Nanoscience. DOI 10.1007/s13204-014-0381-7. 1–9.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186