Use of CT Scanning and Radiography as Legal Expert Evidence in Paleontology (Trilobites of Morocco)
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages: 47-53
Received: Jun. 16, 2019;
Accepted: Jul. 11, 2019;
Published: Jul. 23, 2019
Views 44 Downloads 53
Joan Corbacho, Departament of Trilobites and Certifications, Geological Museum of the Seminary, Barcelona, Spain; Departament of Paleontology, Association of Legal Experts of Catalonia, Sabadell, Spain
Scott Morrison, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, USA
Sergio Llácer, Departament of Virtual Paleontology, Catalan Institute of Paleontology, Sabadell, Spain
Keith Hammond, Departament of Trilobites and Certifications, Geological Museum of the Seminary, Barcelona, Spain
Follow on us
This study presents CT Scanning and radiography techniques applied to invertebrate paleontology, specifically to the detection of trilobites forgeries in Morocco. A well-known technique uses ultraviolet rays to detect falsified resin elements in trilobites. This technique is very effective for the trilobites of the Ordovician of Russia, although it is also used in specimens from other regions as we can see in figure 1: a topotype of the Upper Ordovician of Morocco, Uralichas hispanicus tardus Vela & Corbacho, 2009. This technique is not entirely reliable since it only detects the resin but not the density difference of different broken pieces that can be present in an authentic trilobite and its matrix, so these parts could belong to different specimens. This problem is solved with the utilization of a CT Scanning and in some cases with simple radiography. This paper presents mainly holotypes, paratypes and other specimens included in scientific articles, belonging to the Lower Ordovician, Upper Ordovician and Middle Devonian. The authenticity of the figured specimens are further substantiated and demonstrate that they retain the necessary characters to make an accurate description of the designated new species.
CT Scanning, Radiography, X-ray, Trilobites, Fakes, Legal Expert in Paleontology
To cite this article
Use of CT Scanning and Radiography as Legal Expert Evidence in Paleontology (Trilobites of Morocco), American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 2,
2019, pp. 47-53.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
J. Corbacho & C. Sendino 2012. Fossil fakes and their recognition. Deposits Magazine 30: 35-40.
J. Corbacho 2011. Trilobites from the Upper Ordovician of Bou Nemrou–El Kaid Errami (Morocco). Batalleria 16: 16-36.
J. Corbacho, F. J. López-Soriano, U. Lemke, S. Morrison & K. Hammond 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Genus Platypeltoides (Nileidae) in Morocco. American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 6 (2): 13-20.
P. Hohenstein 2004. X-ray imaging for palaeontology. The British Journal of Radiology 77: 917, 420-425.
F. Rita, O. Mateus & M. Overbeeke 2008. Acta Radiológica Portuguesa, Vol. XX, nº 80, pág. 83-84, Out.-Dez.
J. Corbacho &, J. A. Vela 2009. Falsificación de fósiles del N de Africa (no trilobites). Batalleria 14: 53-56.
J. Corbacho, I. Corbacho & S. Morrison 2015. Últimas técnicas detectadas en la falsificación de fósiles. Batalleria 22: 22-27.
R. Racicot 2017. Fossil secrets revealed: X-Ray CT Scanning and Applications in Paleontology. The Paleontological Society Papers, 22: 21–38.
T. Matthews & A. du Plessis 2016. Using X-ray computed tomography analysis tools to compare the skeletal element morphology of fossil and modern frog (Anura) species. Palaeontologia Electronica 19.1.1T: 1-46.
D. A. Iurino, M. Danti, S. W. Della Sala & R. Sardella 2013. Modern techniques for ancient bones: Vertebrate Palaeontology and medical CT analysis. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana i-xi doi:10.4435/BSPI.2013.13.
D. Schwarz, P. Vontobel, E. H. Lehmann, C. A. Meyer & G. Bongartz 2005. Neutron Tomography of Internal Structures of Vertebrate Remains: A Comparison with X-ray Computed Tomography. Palaeontologia Electronica 8, Issue 2; 30A: 11p, 800KB.
T. Rowe, Z. Luo, R. A. Ketcham, J. A. Maisano & M. W. Colbert 2016. X-ray computed tomography datasets for forensic analysis of vertebrate fossils. Sci Data 3 Figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.1612235.
J. Corbacho 2014. Trabajo de final de Master (TFM); Pericia y Tasación Judicial. Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes. 36 pp.
J. A. Cunningham, I. A. Rahman, S. J. Lautenschlager, E. J. Rayfield & P. C. J. Donoghue 2014. A virtual world of paleontology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 29 (6): 347-357.
A. Lukeneder 2012. Computed 3D visualisation of an extinct cephalopod using computer tomographs. Computers & Geosciences 45: 68-74.
N. Kelley 2017. Paleontology: Scanning for Sea Monsters. Current Biology 27: R1305–R1329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.11.019
J. M. Neenan, T. Reich, S. W. Evers, P. Barrett, S. Pierce & R. Benson 2017. Evolution of the Sauropterygian Labyrinth with Increasingly Pelagic Lifestyles. Current Biology 27: 3852–3858.
J. Corbacho & F. J. López-Soriano, 2012. A new asaphid trilobite from the Lower Ordovician (Arenig) of Morocco. Batalleria 17: 3-11.
R. A. Fortey 2009. A new giant asaphid trilobite from the Lower Ordovician of Morocco. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 37: 9-16.